Is It Illegal To Have a Bedroom in the Basement?

Is It Illegal To Have a Bedroom in the Basement?

A basement is a great location for a kid’s bedroom or a guest bedroom. In the case of the former, both you and your children will appreciate the space and the small amount of separation that a basement bedroom provides. But I’m afraid that with all these benefits, Is it illegal to have a bedroom in the basement?

Absolutely not, it’s completely legal and you have all the right to have a bedroom in your basement, but in case that you will respect the building code requirements. Because any room that has a closet or is attached to a bathroom is considered a bedroom, regardless of what you may call it on your permit application. Your building department is especially concerned about bedrooms, and it is easy to understand why.

Sleeping rooms are in use when we are in our most vulnerable state, so they must be set up for our protection. That’s why any basement bedroom must have an egress window that meets the minimum size and accessibility requirements.

A smoke detector is also required, and a radon detector is highly recommended (radon levels are highest in the basement). Bedrooms also must be comfortable.

Basement Bedroom Requirements

Emergency Escape (egress) Opening

An emergency escape and rescue opening commonly called an egress opening is required in all bedrooms and in most basements. Codes are very specific concerning the minimum clearances of the openings and how they can be accessed, as well as how they can be exited from the exterior.

Rooms that are not intended for sleeping typically do not need to meet egress requirements. You may use an operable window or you may use a side-hinged or sliding door as the escape opening.

Escape Opening Locations

  1. Provide at least one escape opening in every bedroom including bedrooms above, at, and below ground level.
  2. Provide at least one escape opening in most basements. You are not required to provide a basement escape opening if: (a) the basement area is not more than 200 square feet, and if (b) the basement is used only to house mechanical appliances.
  3. Provide each basement bedroom with an escape opening. You are not required to provide other escape openings in basements in addition to the bedroom escape openings.
  4. Open all escape openings directly onto an area that leads directly to a public way. This means that escape openings cannot open onto an enclosed courtyard or onto a similar area that does not lead directly and without obstruction to an area that is accessible by the public.
  5. You may open an escape opening under a deck or porch if: (a) the escape opening can be opened to the full required dimensions, and if (b) the space under the deck or porch is at least 36 inches high.
  6. Note that an escape opening may be required when converting a previously unfinished basement into finished space, especially if the finished space is a bedroom. Verify requirements with the local building official.

Locks & Bars on Openings: Do not cover or obstruct escape openings with locks, bars, screens, or similar devices unless they can be operated from the inside without tools, keys, lock combinations, and special knowledge, and can be operated with the same force required to open the escape opening.

Escape Opening Size

  1. Provide escape openings with a clear opening area of at least 5.7 square feet. This includes escape openings above and below grade level. You may reduce an escape opening at grade level to at least 5.0 square feet.
  2. Provide each escape opening with a clear opening at least 24 inches high and at least 20 inches wide.
  3. Locate the sill of each escape opening not more than 44 inches above the finished floor. Measure the sill height from the finished floor to the where the clear opening begins (the bottom of the opening).
  4. Measure escape opening height and width using the clear opening area. The clear opening area does not include obstructions such as window frames.

Window Wells

  1. Provide all below-grade escape openings with a window well.
  2. Provide each window well with at least 9 square feet clear opening area and a depth and width of at least 36 inches in each direction.
  3. Install a permanent ladder if the window well bottom is more than 44 inches below grade. Ladder rung specifications include a rung width at least 12 inches, a rung projection at least three inches from the window well wall, a rung vertical spacing not more than 18 inches apart, and a ladder may encroach not more than 6 inches into minimum window well width or depth dimension.

Canadian Minimum Requirements for Emergency Escape and Rescue Openings

ITEM IRC NBC
Required locations Bedroom
s and habitable basements
Bedrooms
Minimum Area 5.7 sq. ft. 3.77 sq. ft.
Minimum height or width 24 in. height, 20 in. width 15 in. for both
Maximum height of the sill 44 in. 59 in.
Minimum clearance in window wells 3 ft. x 3 ft. Front clearance greater than 22 in.
Additional requirements for window wells If depth greater than 44 in., a ladder must be provided. Any cover must be removable from the interior side.

Smoke Alarms and Carbon Monoxide (CO) Alarms

Working Principle

Smoke alarms and carbon monoxide alarms are required in new construction.

  • Carbon monoxide alarms (A) are triggered by the presence of carbon monoxide gas. Smoke alarms are available in photoelectric and ionizing models.
  • In ionizing alarms (B), a small amount of current flows in an ionization chamber. When smoke enters the chamber, it interrupts the current, triggering the alarm.
  • Photoelectric alarms (C) rely on a beam of light, which when interrupted by smoke triggers an alarm.
  • Heat alarms (D) sound an alarm when they detect areas of high heat in the room. Also available are combination smoke/CO alarms and ionizing/photoelectric smoke alarms. The combination of ionizing/photoelectric alarms is recommended because they detect both smoke and light from fires.

Install smoke alarms in and near all bedrooms and on all levels of a home.
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What Is a Crawlspace?

What Is a Crawlspace?

The crawl space is a traditional foundation construction in North America, Nordic countries, and Australia, and is becoming very popular in Central Europe too, especially for timber buildings.

It exists under the home like a basement, though it hasn’t the same height as a traditional basement. However, a crawl space is the middle ground between a basement and a simple foundation.

Crawl spaces tend to exist to provide access to ventilation and other systems beneath the home. Crawl spaces can be anywhere from one foot in height to more, though in order to qualify as a crawl space an adult should not be able to stand.

Pros

  • The investors usually appreciate lower investment cost and saving of time compared to the traditional slab-on-ground foundations.
  • Also antipathy to artificial materials like plastic foils or concrete sometimes plays a role.
  • The crawl space can be a relatively safe way for using natural thermal insulation (e.g. straw bales, wooden or hemp fibres) in the base floor.
  • In some cases, it is the best or even the only suitable solution for building foundation (e.g. sloping terrain).

Cons

  • many authors have reported major moisture problems in modern crawl spaces followed by mold growth and decay of building materials.

 

The base of a crawl space is the ground, which means that moisture-laden air is always present in the confined environment. Moisture condensation may occur and cause several housing problems.

For this reason, under-floor ventilation was originally designed to prevent excessive humidity, but under some conditions, it may have negative effects, such as an increase in relative humidity.

Can you dig out a crawl space?

The absolute answer is: yes, to make a crawl space for your house is an easy process, just by digging under your house floor. But is it really simple as i said? of course yes after asking an engineer and getting the permit to do that.

Real Statistics About Crawl Spaces

Houses with crawl spaces in the United States represent more than 21 million units from a total of 87 million single-unit structures (National Association of Home Builders, 2006).

Foundations of single-unit housing structures (excluding manufactured/ mobile homes) were classified in the 2007 American Housing Survey(U.S. Census Bureau, 2007) as: with a basement under all the building, with a basement under part of the building, with a crawl space, on a concrete slab, and others.

Insulating Crawl Spaces

Tools and Materials

  • Dust or respirator mask
  • work gloves
  • staple gun
  • batt or blanket insulation
  • heavy-duty staples
  • wire mesh

Steps

  1. Batts of fiberglass insulation should be installed in the bays between the floor joists.
  2. Staple wire mesh onto the joists to keep out animals and prevent the insulation from sagging.
  3. Staple fiberglass insulation batts onto knee walls above foundations. You can let the batts drape down over the masonry.

Crawl-Space Venting

Dirt floors require more ventilation than concrete floors. If the floor of a crawl space is concrete and the walls are insulated, you can ventilate with a series of small foundation vents.

The number of vents depends on the total square feet in a given space. A general rule is to have 1 square foot of vent area for every 150 square feet of floor space. Sliding metal vents are designed to replace the space of one 8 x 8 x 16-inch concrete block.

-A ventilated crawl space needs to be screened, with either pressure-treated-wood or PVC lattice and a welded wire netting.

-Plastic lattice provides venting in many shapes and colors—and when it gets dirty you just wash it down with a hose.

-PT (pressure-treated) lattice has a built-in resistance to water damage and rot, even near ground level.

-Use galvanized wire mesh or plastic screening to keep insects and animals from entering.

Crawl space Ventilated to Exterior

  1. Provide at least one square foot of net free ventilation area for every 150 square feet of crawlspace floor in a ventilated crawlspace. You may reduce the net free ventilation area to at least one square foot for every 1,500 square feet of crawlspace floor if you cover the floor with a vapor retarder such as six-mil polyethylene sheeting.
  2. Install covers such as screens or grates in the ventilation openings. Use screens, grates, grills, or plates with openings at least 1⁄8 inch and not more than ¼ inch.
  3. Subtract the space used by opening covers from the net free ventilation area of a ventilation opening. Example: a one square foot opening may be reduced to an effective 2⁄3 square foot opening when covered by a cast iron grill or grate. The cover manufacturer’s instructions should indicate the cover’s opening reduction amount.
  4. Locate a ventilation opening not more than three feet from every corner of the crawlspace wall. Unventilated crawlspaces are recommended by experts for most crawlspaces.
  5. There is considerable controversy about the effectiveness of crawlspace ventilation, particularly in warm humid climates. Check with a qualified energy efficiency professional before adding insulation between floor joists in crawlspaces. Check the condition of existing floor joist insulation in crawlspaces at least annually.

Unventilated Crawl Space

  • You may eliminate crawlspace ventilation openings by insulating the crawlspace walls or floor system as required by general codes and by installing all the following moisture control and ventilation components: (a) cover all exposed dirt in the crawlspace floor with an approved vapor retarder, such as six-mil polyethylene sheeting. (b) lap all vapor retarder seams by at least six inches and seal or tape the seams. (c) extend the vapor retarder at least six inches up the crawlspace wall and attach and seal the vapor retarder to the wall. (d) provide one of the following ventilation methods: continuous mechanical exhaust ventilation, or a conditioned air supply at a rate of 1 cubic foot per minute for every 50 square feet of crawl space floor area and provide a return air opening to the building interior.

 

Unventilated crawlspaces are recommended by experts for most crawlspaces.

  • Do not connect the return air opening for the building interior to a forced-air return duct. Use an opening in the floor or use an unpressurized duct between the crawl space and the building interior.
  • There is some controversy about providing conditioned air to a crawl space. Do not exceed the 1 cubic foot per minute conditioned air ventilation rate.

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Installing a Curbless Shower

Installing a Curbless Shower

Whether it’s part of a complete wet room or installed as a standalone feature, a curbless shower combines easy access for those with limited mobility, convenience for other users, and a look that is trendy, sophisticated, and attractive.

The trick to installing one of these water features is to ensure the moisture stays inside the shower.

Once upon a time, creating a reliably waterproof enclosure for a curbless shower was no small chore.

It meant putting a lot of work into creating a custom shower pan. This kind of project was usually above the skill level or desire of the weekend DIYer, and it generally meant hiring a contractor.

Now you can buy curbless shower-pan kits that make installation a breeze.

The manufacturers have thought through all the issues that can arise and have developed the kits and shower pans to be as foolproof as possible, while also meeting prevailing codes and best standards and practices.

Installing a curbless shower using one of these kits is a realistic project for any home handyperson with even moderate DIY skills and a weekend to spare. These pans come with preconfigured slopes to ensure optimal drainage away from the shower’s edges.

The product we used for this project, the Tuff Form kit from Amazon, includes an offset drain hole that offers the option of rotating the pan in the event of a joist or mechanicals that are in the way.

This product is offered in nine different sizes and can be cut with a circular saw to just about any shape including more unusual, curvy shapes for a truly custom look. Curbless shower-pan manufacturers also sell pans with trench drains for an even sleeker look.

The pan we used for this project is typical of the prefab curbless pan construction; it can support 1,100 pounds even though the pan itself weighs less than 70 pounds.

It sits right on floor joists, with the addition of blocking to support the area around the drain and to provide nailing surfaces around the edges.

Kits like these offer advantages beyond the ease of installation and a thoughtful configuration of parts. Usually, the plumbing can be completely adjusted and connected from above, so you won’t need to work in the basement or crawl space, or open up the first-floor ceiling to install a second-floor shower.

The kits themselves generally include almost everything you’ll need for the installation.

TOOLS & MATERIALS

  • Curbless shower kit
  • Circular saw
  • Jigsaw or handsaw
  • Caulk gun
  • Torpedo level
  • Cordless drill and bits
  • PVC cement and brush
  • Screwdriver
  • Speed square
  • Putty knife
  • Palm sander and 120-grit pad
  • Scissors
  • Rubber gloves
  • Synthetic paintbrush
  • Roller and roller handle
  • Caulk/ construction adhesive
  • Blocking
  • Sealant
  • Waterproofing tape
  • Membrane
  • Ear and eye protection
  • Work gloves

WET ROOMS AND UNIVERSAL DESIGN

Because a wet room allows the bathroom to be designed with fewer barriers and a single-level floor surface, these rooms are natural partners to a universal design approach.

If you’re thinking about converting a bathroom to a wet room, it’s worthwhile to consider a little extra effort to make the space as accessible as possible for the maximum number of users.

Walls. Where codes allow it, consider using thick plywood rather than cement board for the wall subsurfaces. Plywood allows for direct installation of grab bars without the need for blocking or locating studs.

If you’re set on using cement board, plan out locations for grab bars near toilets, behind and alongside bathtubs, and in showers.

Most codes specify that grab bars must be able to support up to 200 pounds—which usually means adding blocking in the walls behind the grab bars.

Shower stall. One of the benefits of adding a curbless shower is easy wheelchair (or walker) access. For maximum accessibility, the shower area should be at least 60″ wide by at least 36″ deep (60″ by 60″ is preferable).

This allows a wheelchair user to occupy the stall with a helper. And, although the idea is a wide-open shower space, it’s always a good idea to add a fold-down seat. This allows for transfer from a wheelchair or a place for someone with limited leg strength and endurance to sit.

How to Install a Waterproof Sub-Base for a Curbless Shower

1. Remove the existing flooring material in the area of the shower pan (if you’re remodeling an existing bathroom). Use a circular saw to cut out and remove the subfloor in the exact dimensions of the shower pan. Finish the cuts with a jigsaw or handsaw.

2. Reinforce the floor with blocking between joists as necessary. Toenail bridge blocking in on either side of the drain waste-pipe location, and between joists anywhere you’ll need a nailing surface along the edges of the shower pan. If trusses or joists are spaced more than 16″ on center, add bridge blocking to adequately support the pan.

3. Set the pan in the opening to make sure it fits and is level. If it is not level, screw shims to the tops of any low joists and check again; repeat if necessary until the pan is perfectly level in all directions.

4. Install or relocate drain pipes as needed. Check with your local building department: if the drain and trap are not accessible from below you may need to have an onsite inspection before you cover up the plumbing.

5. Check the height of the drain pipe. Its top should be exactly 23⁄8″ from the bottom of the pan—measure down from the top of the joist. If the drainpipe is too high, remove it and trim with a tubing cutter. If it is too low, replace the assembly with a new assembly that has a longer tailpiece.

6. Lay a thick bead of construction adhesive along with the contact areas on all joists, nailing surfaces, and blocking.

7. Set the pan in place and screw it down using at least 2 screws along each side. Do not overtighten the screws. If you’ve cut off the screwing flange on one or more sides to accommodate an unusual shape, drill 1⁄8″ pilot holes in the cut edges at joist or blocking locations and drive the screws through the holes.

8. Disassemble the supplied drain assembly. Be careful not to lose any of the screws. Place the drain tailpiece on the waste pipe under where the pan’s drain hole will be located and measure to check that it sits at the correct level. Solvent-glue the tailpiece to the end of the waste pipe.

9. Position the supplied gaskets on top of the tailpiece (check the manufacturer’s instructions; the gaskets usually need to be layered in the correct order). Set the drain flange piece on top of the tail and into the drain hole in the pan. Drill 1⁄8″ pilot holes through the flange and into the pan. Screw the flange to the pan.

10. Thread the tail top piece into the tail through the drain flange. Use a speed square or other lever, such as spread-channel lock pliers, to snugly tighten the tail top piece in place.

11. Install tile underlayment for the rest of the project area. If the underlayment is higher than the top of the pan once it is installed, you’ll have to sand it to level, gradually tapering away from the pan.

12. Scrape any stickers or other blemishes off the pan with a putty knife. Lightly sand the entire surface of the pan using 120-grit sandpaper to help the sealant adhere. After you’re done sanding, wipe down the sanded pan with a damp sponge. Make sure the entire area is clean.

13. Seal the edge seams at the wall and between the pan and subfloor with waterproof latex sealant. Caulk any pan screw holes that were not used.

14. Cut strips of waterproofing tape to cover all seams in the tile underlayment (both walls and floor). Also, cut strips for the joints where walls and floor meet. Open the pail of liquid waterproofing membrane and mix the liquid thoroughly. Beginning at the top and working down, brush a bed of waterproofing liquid over the seams. Before it dries, set the tape firmly into the waterproofing. Press and smooth the tape. Then brush a layer of waterproofing compound over the tape

15. Trace a hole in the center of the waterproof drain gasket using the bottom of the drain clamping donut. Cut the hole out using scissors. Be careful cutting the gasket because it is a crucial part of the drain waterproofing. Check the fit with the gasket against the underside of the clamping donut top flange.

16. Apply a thin coat of the waterproofing compound around the drain hole and to the back of the drain gasket. Don’t apply too much; if the waterproofing is too thick under the gasket, it may not dry correctly.

17. Put the gasket in place and brush a coat of the waterproofing over the gasket. Screw the clamping donut in place on the top of the drain and over the membrane. Hand-tighten the bolts and then cover the clamping donut with the waterproofing compound (avoid covering the slide lock for the drain grate).

18. Use a roller to roll waterproofing compound across the walls and over the entire pan surface. The ideal is 4mm thick (about the thickness of a credit card). Allow this first coat to dry for 2 hours, then cover with a second coat. This should conclude the waterproofing phase of the project, and you’re ready to begin laying tile once the waterproofing compound has dried thoroughly.

How to Install Tile for a Curbless Shower

TOOLS & MATERIALS

  • Ear and eye protection
  • Work gloves
  • Tile
  • Spacers
  • Thinset tile adhesive
  • Trowel
  • Pencil
  • Tile saw or nippers
  • Grout
  • Towel
  • Sponge

Installing Steps

1. Set the floor tile first. Begin by placing a sample of the floor tile directly next to the drain so you can set the drain grate height to match. The adjustable mounting plate for the grate should be flush with the tops of the tile.

2. Begin laying floor tile in the corner of the shower. Lay a bed of thin-set tile adhesive, using a notched trowel. The thinset container should specify the notch size (3⁄8″ square notch is common).

3. Place the corner tile into the bed of thin-set and press it to set it. Don’t press down too hard or you will displace too much of the material. Continue laying tile, fanning out from the corner toward the drain opening. Leave space around the drain opening as it is likely you’ll need to cut tiles to fit.

4. Install tile so a small square of the untiled area is left around the drain opening (which, in the system seen here, is square, making for an easier cutting job)

5. Mark the tiles that surround the drain opening for cutting. Leave a small gap between the tiles next to the drain-grate mounting plate.

6. Cut the tiles along the trim lines using a tile saw. If you are not comfortable using a tile saw, score the tiles and cut them with tile nippers.

7. Apply thin-set onto the shower pan, taking care not to get any on the drain-grate mounting plate. You may need to use a small trowel or a putty knife to get into small gaps.

8. Set the cut tiles around the drain opening, doing your best to maintain even gaps that match the gaps in the rest of the floor. Once you’ve finished tiling around the drain, finish setting floor tile in the rest of the project area.

9. Let the floor tile set overnight and then apply grout. Using a grout sponge, wipe the grout over the gaps so all gaps are filled evenly. After the grout dries, buff the floor with a towel to wipe up excess residue.

10. Snap the grate cover into the cover mounting plate (if you’ve stuffed a rag into the drain opening to keep debris out, be sure to remove it first). The grate cover seen here locks in with a small key that should be saved in case you need to remove the grate cover.

11. Begin setting the wall tile. Generally, it’s easiest if you start at the bottom and work upward. Instead of thinset adhesive, an adhesive mat is being used here. This relatively new product is designed for walls and is rated for waterproof applications. It is a good idea to use a spacer (¼” thick or so) to get an even border at the bottoms of the first tiles.

12. In the design used here, a border of the same mosaic tile used in the floor is installed all around the shower area to make the first course. Dark-brown accent tiles are installed in a single vertical column running upward, centered on the line formed by the shower faucet and showerhead. This vertical column is installed after the bottom border.

13. Next, another vertical column of accent tiles is installed on each side of the large, dark tiles. These columns are also laid using the floor tile, which connects the walls and floor visually in an effective way.

14. Finally, larger field tiles that match the floor tile used outside the shower area are installed up to the corner and outward from the shower area. Starting at the bottom, set a thin spacer on top of the border tiles to ensure even gaps.

15. Grout the gaps in the wall tiles. It’s usually a good idea to protect any fittings, such as the shower faucet handle escutcheon, with painter’s tape prior to grouting. If you wish, a clear surround may be installed to visually define the shower area, as in the photo to the right, but because the shower pan is pitched toward the drain it really is not necessary.

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How to Install a Prehung Interior Door

How to Install a Prehung Interior Door

Installing an interior prehung door is an easy upgrade that can dramatically improve the appearance of your home. this process comes after the framing work is complete and the drywall has been installed.

If the rough opening for the door has been framed accurately, installing the door takes about an hour. so, what size prehung door do I need? and how to install it?

I can say that Standard prehung doors have 4½-inch-wide jambs and are sized to fit walls with 2 × 4 construction and ½-inch wallboard. If you have 2 × 6 construction or thicker wall surface material, you can special order a door to match, or you can add jamb extensions to a standard-sized door.

To Install the door, first, I will Determine if a prehung door is right for my situation. Familiarize me with the necessary parts. I have to Determine if the floor is level where the door will be hung. and Make sure the rough opening is plumb. and I need to Shim the trimmers and Fit the door into the opening. Now I will mount the hardware, Adjust the reveal. Anchor the jamb. Replace the hinge screw. Attach the split jamb. Mount the latch hardware.

About Doors

Functions

Exterior doors function in numerous ways:

  1. They let people in and out. This is not as trivial as it may seem but relates to the design of a welcoming entryway—an architectural subject by itself.
  2. They let large objects in and out. The minimum width for an entry door (and some interior doors as well) should be 3 feet to facilitate moving furniture and appliances.
  3. They keep intruders out. All entrance doors should have quality dead-bolt locks as well as the common latch set. In urban areas, an additional lock, operated only from the inside, would be worthwhile.
  4. They keep out winter wind and cold. Except for custom doors intended for historic preservation, the great majority of exterior doors sold today are steel with foam-insulated cores. These represent a giant advance over the classic wood door, in thermal performance if not appearance.
  5. Compared with an R-value of 1.5 for the classic wood-paneled door, the foam core door has an R-value of 6 to 12, reducing conductive heat loss by 75 to 85 percent. The best metal doors also incorporate magnetic weatherstrips, virtually eliminating infiltration.
  6. They let in summer breezes, winter solar gain, and natural daylight. The original function of the storm door was the same as the storm window: to reduce winter heat loss by conduction and infiltration. These losses have largely been eliminated by the steel door. However, a combination “storm” door may still be desirable for summer ventilation.

Handedness

When ordering a prehung door, you must specify its “handedness.” The illustration below shows how handedness is defined. If a door opens toward you and the doorknob is on your left, the door is left-handed. If a door opens toward you and the doorknob is on your right, the door is right-handed.

Construction

The illustration of the images shows how the five most common types of doors are constructed. Fiberglass and steel doors are commonly used as entrance doors because of high R-value and dimensional stability. Wood panel doors are used primarily on the interior of classic-styled homes. The hollow-core door is used exclusively on the interior of low-end homes, whereas the more substantial solid-core door is common in modern, high-end homes.

How Doors Are Constructed

Framing The Openings of The Doors

Creating an opening for a door in a wall involves building a framework about 1 inch wider and ½ inch taller than the door’s jamb frame. This oversized opening called a rough opening, will enable you to position the door easily and shim it plumb and level.

Before framing a door, it’s always a good idea to buy the door and refer to the manufacturer’s recommendations for rough opening size.

Doorframes consist of a pair of full-length king studs and two shorter jack studs that support the header above the door. A header provides an attachment point for wallboard and door casings.

On load-bearing walls, it also helps to transfer the building’s structural loads from above down into the wall framework and eventually the foundation.

Door framing requires flat, straight, and dry framing lumber, so choose your king, jack, and header pieces carefully. Sight down the edges and ends to look for warpage, and cut off the ends of pieces with splits.

Tools & Materials

  • Tape measure
  • Framing square
  • Hammer or nail gun
  • Handsaw or reciprocating saw
  • Framing lumber
  • 10d or pneumatic framing nails
  • 3⁄8″ plywood (for structural headers)
  • Construction adhesive
  • Eye and ear protection

How to Frame a Rough Opening For an Interior Prehung Door

Doorframes for prehung doors (left) start with king studs that attach to the top and bottom plates. Inside the king studs, jack studs support the header at the top of the opening. Cripple studs continue the wall-stud layout above the opening. In non-load-bearing walls, the header may be a 2 × 4 laid flat or a built-up header (below). The dimensions of the framed opening are referred to as the rough opening.

 

To mark the layout for the doorframe, measure the width of the door unit along the bottom. Add 1″ to this dimension to determine the width of the rough opening (the distance between the jack studs). This gives you a ½” gap on each side for adjusting the doorframe during installation. Mark the top and bottom plates for the jack and king studs.

How to Frame a Prehung Interior Door Opening (Load-Bearing)

  • Door framing on load-bearing walls will require a structural header that transfers loads above the wall into the jack studs, sole plate, and down into the house foundation. Build it by sandwiching a piece of ½” plywood between two 2 × 4s. Use construction adhesive and nails to fasten the header together.
  • Mark layout lines for the king and jack studs on the wall’s top and sole plates. Cut the king studs slightly longer than the distance between the wall plates, and toenail them in place with 10d nails or 3″ pneumatic nails.
  • Cut the jack studs to length (they should rest on the soleplate). The height of a jack stud for a standard interior door is 83½”, or ½” taller than the door. Nail the jack studs to the king studs.

  • Install the built-up header by resting it on the jack studs and end nailing through the king studs. Use 10d nails or 3″ pneumatic nails.
  • Fasten a cripple stud above the header halfway between the king studs for use as a nailing surface.
  • Cut a sole plate opening for the door with a reciprocating saw or handsaw. Trim the soleplate flush with the jack studs. Install the saw blade teeth-up for better access.

HOW TO FRAME AN OPENING FOR A NON-LOAD-BEARING WALL

Variation: In a non-load-bearing wall, the header can be a piece of 2× framing lumber that lays flat on top of the jack studs. Cut it to length, and install by end nailing through the king studs or down into the jack studs. Toenail a cripple stud between the top plate and header, halfway between the king studs. It transfers structural loads into the header.

Tools & Materials for the Installation

  • Level
  • Hammer
  • Handsaw
  • Prehung interior door
  • Wood shims
  • 8d casing nails
  • Eye and ear protection

Tip: Jamb Extensions

If your walls are built with 2 × 6 studs, you’ll need to extend the jambs by attaching wood strips to the edges of the jamb after the door is installed. Use glue and 4d casing nails when attaching jamb extensions.

Steps to Install a Prehung Interior Door

To start, don’t remove shipping braces from the door, they keep the frame square. If the floor is not level, cut one leg of the frame. Prehung doors are built to allow for thick carpeting, so you may need to cut both legs if the bottom of the door is too high of an uncarpeted floor.

  • Center the unit in the opening, and check that the top is level.

  • Slide the door unit into the framed opening so the edges of the jambs are flush with the wall surface and the hinge-side jamb is plumb.
  • Insert pairs of wood shims driven from opposite directions into the gap between the framing members and the hinge-side jamb, spaced every 12″. Check the hinge-side jamb to make sure it is still plumb and does not bow.
  • Anchor the hinge-side jamb with 8d casing nails driven through the jamb and shims and into the jack stud.

  • Insert pairs of shims in the gap between the framing members and the latch-side jamb and top jamb, spaced every 12″. With the door closed, adjust the shims so the gap between the door edge and jamb is 1⁄8″ wide. Drive 8d casing nails through the jambs and shims, into the framing members.
  • Cut the shims flush with the wall surface, using a handsaw. Hold the saw vertically to prevent damage to the door jamb or wall. Finish the door and install the lockset as directed by the manufacturer.

  • When the door is correctly positioned, predrill and nail through the frame (and hidden shims) into the wall framing.
  • Also, drive finishing nails through the face of exterior molding into the wall framing. Set the heads, and fill with putty.
  • You can order most prehung doors with locks already installed or with the holes predrilled so you can install your own.
  • A lockset plus deadbolt provides extra security. Use long screws in the keepers that reach through to the house framing.
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Removing a Non-Load Bearing Wall

Removing a Non-Load Bearing Wall

Removing an existing interior wall is an easy way to create more usable space without the expense of building an addition. Removing a wall turns two small rooms into a large space perfect for family living. Adding new walls in a larger area creates a private space to use as a quiet study or as a new bedroom. but now can I really remove a non-load-bearing? and if I can, then how?

I have made deep research on the internet and out the net, and I’m saying that you can do it by Using a utility knife to score the intersections where the wall you’re removing meets the ceiling, Use the side of a hammer to punch a starter hole in the drywall, Reroute outlets, switches, plumbing, or ductwork. Locate the closest permanent studs on the adjacent wall or walls with a stud finder, Remove the wall studs by cutting through them in the middle, Cut through the wall’s top plate, Remove the soleplate, Patch the walls and ceiling with strips of drywall.

Before You Start

avoid load-bearing walls

Be sure the wall you plan to remove is not load-bearing( Partition walls are interior walls that do not carry the structural weight of the house. They have a single top plate and can be perpendicular to the floor and ceiling joists but are not aligned above support beams. Any interior wall that is parallel to floor and ceiling joists is a partition wall. ) before you begin.

If you need to remove a load-bearing wall, check with a contractor or building inspector first. Load-bearing walls carry the weight of the structure above them. You’ll need to install a temporary support wall to take the place of the structural wall you’re removing.

avoid plumb&wire rough-ins

Remember that walls also hold the essential mechanical systems that run through your home. You need to consider how your project affects these mechanicals. Turn off electrical power at the service panel before you begin demolition.

Tools & Materials

  • Stud finder
  • Tape measure
  • Utility knife
  • Hammer
  • Pry bars
  • Reciprocating or circular saw
  • Drill
  • Eye and ear protection

How to Remove a Non-Load-Bearing Wall

1. Use a utility knife to score the intersections where the wall you’re removing meets the ceiling to keep from damaging it during wall removal. Pry away baseboard trim and remove receptacle plates and switch covers to prepare for demolition.

2. Use the side of a hammer to punch a starter hole in the drywall, then carefully remove the drywall with a pry bar. Try to pull off large sections at a time to minimize dust. Remove any remaining drywall nails or screws from the wall studs.

3. Reroute outlets, switches, plumbing, or ductwork. Have professionals do this for you if you are not experienced with these systems or confident in your skills. This work should be inspected after it is completed.

4. Locate the closest permanent studs on the adjacent wall or walls with a stud finder, and carefully remove the drywall up to these studs. Score the drywall first with a utility knife, then cut through it with a circular saw.

5. Remove the wall studs by cutting through them in the middle with a reciprocating saw and prying out the upper and lower sections. Remove the endmost studs where the wall meets an adjacent wall or walls.

6. Cut through the wall’s top plate with a circular saw or reciprocating saw. Pry out the top plate sections carefully to avoid damaging the ceiling

7. Remove the soleplate just as you did the top plate by cutting through it and prying up the long pieces.

8. Patch the walls and ceiling with strips of drywall, and repair the floor as needed with new floor coverings.

How much does it cost to remove a non-load bearing wall?

On average, everyone pays $300 to $1,000 to remove a non-load-bearing wall in his home. The factor to precise the costs are the number of supply lines on the wall( water, HVAC, and plumbing lines) and the size of the work. also, you the cost of the professional, because you will not need a support structure but a professional. and there are some contractors that afford this job with this price:

Low: $400
(removal of a non-load bearing wall with no pipes and minimal wires)
High: $3,000
(removal of a load-bearing wall and the installation of a steel beam with new drywall).

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