How to Install a Prehung Interior Door

How to Install a Prehung Interior Door

Installing an interior prehung door is an easy upgrade that can dramatically improve the appearance of your home. this process comes after the framing work is complete and the drywall has been installed.

If the rough opening for the door has been framed accurately, installing the door takes about an hour. so, what size prehung door do I need? and how to install it?

I can say that Standard prehung doors have 4½-inch-wide jambs and are sized to fit walls with 2 × 4 construction and ½-inch wallboard. If you have 2 × 6 construction or thicker wall surface material, you can special order a door to match, or you can add jamb extensions to a standard-sized door.

To Install the door, first, I will Determine if a prehung door is right for my situation. Familiarize me with the necessary parts. I have to Determine if the floor is level where the door will be hung. and Make sure the rough opening is plumb. and I need to Shim the trimmers and Fit the door into the opening. Now I will mount the hardware, Adjust the reveal. Anchor the jamb. Replace the hinge screw. Attach the split jamb. Mount the latch hardware.

About Doors

Functions

Exterior doors function in numerous ways:

  1. They let people in and out. This is not as trivial as it may seem but relates to the design of a welcoming entryway—an architectural subject by itself.
  2. They let large objects in and out. The minimum width for an entry door (and some interior doors as well) should be 3 feet to facilitate moving furniture and appliances.
  3. They keep intruders out. All entrance doors should have quality dead-bolt locks as well as the common latch set. In urban areas, an additional lock, operated only from the inside, would be worthwhile.
  4. They keep out winter wind and cold. Except for custom doors intended for historic preservation, the great majority of exterior doors sold today are steel with foam-insulated cores. These represent a giant advance over the classic wood door, in thermal performance if not appearance.
  5. Compared with an R-value of 1.5 for the classic wood-paneled door, the foam core door has an R-value of 6 to 12, reducing conductive heat loss by 75 to 85 percent. The best metal doors also incorporate magnetic weatherstrips, virtually eliminating infiltration.
  6. They let in summer breezes, winter solar gain, and natural daylight. The original function of the storm door was the same as the storm window: to reduce winter heat loss by conduction and infiltration. These losses have largely been eliminated by the steel door. However, a combination “storm” door may still be desirable for summer ventilation.

Handedness

When ordering a prehung door, you must specify its “handedness.” The illustration below shows how handedness is defined. If a door opens toward you and the doorknob is on your left, the door is left-handed. If a door opens toward you and the doorknob is on your right, the door is right-handed.

Construction

The illustration of the images shows how the five most common types of doors are constructed. Fiberglass and steel doors are commonly used as entrance doors because of high R-value and dimensional stability. Wood panel doors are used primarily on the interior of classic-styled homes. The hollow-core door is used exclusively on the interior of low-end homes, whereas the more substantial solid-core door is common in modern, high-end homes.

How Doors Are Constructed

Framing The Openings of The Doors

Creating an opening for a door in a wall involves building a framework about 1 inch wider and ½ inch taller than the door’s jamb frame. This oversized opening called a rough opening, will enable you to position the door easily and shim it plumb and level.

Before framing a door, it’s always a good idea to buy the door and refer to the manufacturer’s recommendations for rough opening size.

Doorframes consist of a pair of full-length king studs and two shorter jack studs that support the header above the door. A header provides an attachment point for wallboard and door casings.

On load-bearing walls, it also helps to transfer the building’s structural loads from above down into the wall framework and eventually the foundation.

Door framing requires flat, straight, and dry framing lumber, so choose your king, jack, and header pieces carefully. Sight down the edges and ends to look for warpage, and cut off the ends of pieces with splits.

Tools & Materials

  • Tape measure
  • Framing square
  • Hammer or nail gun
  • Handsaw or reciprocating saw
  • Framing lumber
  • 10d or pneumatic framing nails
  • 3⁄8″ plywood (for structural headers)
  • Construction adhesive
  • Eye and ear protection

How to Frame a Rough Opening For an Interior Prehung Door

Doorframes for prehung doors (left) start with king studs that attach to the top and bottom plates. Inside the king studs, jack studs support the header at the top of the opening. Cripple studs continue the wall-stud layout above the opening. In non-load-bearing walls, the header may be a 2 × 4 laid flat or a built-up header (below). The dimensions of the framed opening are referred to as the rough opening.

 

To mark the layout for the doorframe, measure the width of the door unit along the bottom. Add 1″ to this dimension to determine the width of the rough opening (the distance between the jack studs). This gives you a ½” gap on each side for adjusting the doorframe during installation. Mark the top and bottom plates for the jack and king studs.

How to Frame a Prehung Interior Door Opening (Load-Bearing)

  • Door framing on load-bearing walls will require a structural header that transfers loads above the wall into the jack studs, sole plate, and down into the house foundation. Build it by sandwiching a piece of ½” plywood between two 2 × 4s. Use construction adhesive and nails to fasten the header together.
  • Mark layout lines for the king and jack studs on the wall’s top and sole plates. Cut the king studs slightly longer than the distance between the wall plates, and toenail them in place with 10d nails or 3″ pneumatic nails.
  • Cut the jack studs to length (they should rest on the soleplate). The height of a jack stud for a standard interior door is 83½”, or ½” taller than the door. Nail the jack studs to the king studs.

  • Install the built-up header by resting it on the jack studs and end nailing through the king studs. Use 10d nails or 3″ pneumatic nails.
  • Fasten a cripple stud above the header halfway between the king studs for use as a nailing surface.
  • Cut a sole plate opening for the door with a reciprocating saw or handsaw. Trim the soleplate flush with the jack studs. Install the saw blade teeth-up for better access.

HOW TO FRAME AN OPENING FOR A NON-LOAD-BEARING WALL

Variation: In a non-load-bearing wall, the header can be a piece of 2× framing lumber that lays flat on top of the jack studs. Cut it to length, and install by end nailing through the king studs or down into the jack studs. Toenail a cripple stud between the top plate and header, halfway between the king studs. It transfers structural loads into the header.

Tools & Materials for the Installation

  • Level
  • Hammer
  • Handsaw
  • Prehung interior door
  • Wood shims
  • 8d casing nails
  • Eye and ear protection

Tip: Jamb Extensions

If your walls are built with 2 × 6 studs, you’ll need to extend the jambs by attaching wood strips to the edges of the jamb after the door is installed. Use glue and 4d casing nails when attaching jamb extensions.

Steps to Install a Prehung Interior Door

To start, don’t remove shipping braces from the door, they keep the frame square. If the floor is not level, cut one leg of the frame. Prehung doors are built to allow for thick carpeting, so you may need to cut both legs if the bottom of the door is too high of an uncarpeted floor.

  • Center the unit in the opening, and check that the top is level.

  • Slide the door unit into the framed opening so the edges of the jambs are flush with the wall surface and the hinge-side jamb is plumb.
  • Insert pairs of wood shims driven from opposite directions into the gap between the framing members and the hinge-side jamb, spaced every 12″. Check the hinge-side jamb to make sure it is still plumb and does not bow.
  • Anchor the hinge-side jamb with 8d casing nails driven through the jamb and shims and into the jack stud.

  • Insert pairs of shims in the gap between the framing members and the latch-side jamb and top jamb, spaced every 12″. With the door closed, adjust the shims so the gap between the door edge and jamb is 1⁄8″ wide. Drive 8d casing nails through the jambs and shims, into the framing members.
  • Cut the shims flush with the wall surface, using a handsaw. Hold the saw vertically to prevent damage to the door jamb or wall. Finish the door and install the lockset as directed by the manufacturer.

  • When the door is correctly positioned, predrill and nail through the frame (and hidden shims) into the wall framing.
  • Also, drive finishing nails through the face of exterior molding into the wall framing. Set the heads, and fill with putty.
  • You can order most prehung doors with locks already installed or with the holes predrilled so you can install your own.
  • A lockset plus deadbolt provides extra security. Use long screws in the keepers that reach through to the house framing.
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Removing a Non-Load Bearing Wall

Removing a Non-Load Bearing Wall

Removing an existing interior wall is an easy way to create more usable space without the expense of building an addition. Removing a wall turns two small rooms into a large space perfect for family living. Adding new walls in a larger area creates a private space to use as a quiet study or as a new bedroom. but now can I really remove a non-load-bearing? and if I can, then how?

I have made deep research on the internet and out the net, and I’m saying that you can do it by Using a utility knife to score the intersections where the wall you’re removing meets the ceiling, Use the side of a hammer to punch a starter hole in the drywall, Reroute outlets, switches, plumbing, or ductwork. Locate the closest permanent studs on the adjacent wall or walls with a stud finder, Remove the wall studs by cutting through them in the middle, Cut through the wall’s top plate, Remove the soleplate, Patch the walls and ceiling with strips of drywall.

Before You Start

avoid load-bearing walls

Be sure the wall you plan to remove is not load-bearing( Partition walls are interior walls that do not carry the structural weight of the house. They have a single top plate and can be perpendicular to the floor and ceiling joists but are not aligned above support beams. Any interior wall that is parallel to floor and ceiling joists is a partition wall. ) before you begin.

If you need to remove a load-bearing wall, check with a contractor or building inspector first. Load-bearing walls carry the weight of the structure above them. You’ll need to install a temporary support wall to take the place of the structural wall you’re removing.

avoid plumb&wire rough-ins

Remember that walls also hold the essential mechanical systems that run through your home. You need to consider how your project affects these mechanicals. Turn off electrical power at the service panel before you begin demolition.

Tools & Materials

  • Stud finder
  • Tape measure
  • Utility knife
  • Hammer
  • Pry bars
  • Reciprocating or circular saw
  • Drill
  • Eye and ear protection

How to Remove a Non-Load-Bearing Wall

1. Use a utility knife to score the intersections where the wall you’re removing meets the ceiling to keep from damaging it during wall removal. Pry away baseboard trim and remove receptacle plates and switch covers to prepare for demolition.

2. Use the side of a hammer to punch a starter hole in the drywall, then carefully remove the drywall with a pry bar. Try to pull off large sections at a time to minimize dust. Remove any remaining drywall nails or screws from the wall studs.

3. Reroute outlets, switches, plumbing, or ductwork. Have professionals do this for you if you are not experienced with these systems or confident in your skills. This work should be inspected after it is completed.

4. Locate the closest permanent studs on the adjacent wall or walls with a stud finder, and carefully remove the drywall up to these studs. Score the drywall first with a utility knife, then cut through it with a circular saw.

5. Remove the wall studs by cutting through them in the middle with a reciprocating saw and prying out the upper and lower sections. Remove the endmost studs where the wall meets an adjacent wall or walls.

6. Cut through the wall’s top plate with a circular saw or reciprocating saw. Pry out the top plate sections carefully to avoid damaging the ceiling

7. Remove the soleplate just as you did the top plate by cutting through it and prying up the long pieces.

8. Patch the walls and ceiling with strips of drywall, and repair the floor as needed with new floor coverings.

How much does it cost to remove a non-load bearing wall?

On average, everyone pays $300 to $1,000 to remove a non-load-bearing wall in his home. The factor to precise the costs are the number of supply lines on the wall( water, HVAC, and plumbing lines) and the size of the work. also, you the cost of the professional, because you will not need a support structure but a professional. and there are some contractors that afford this job with this price:

Low: $400
(removal of a non-load bearing wall with no pipes and minimal wires)
High: $3,000
(removal of a load-bearing wall and the installation of a steel beam with new drywall).

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Framing Corners & Intersecting Walls

Framing Corners & Intersecting Walls

Framing every corner of your own basement or house with yourself or with your lovers is a great adventure that you’ll take in the 21st century, every adventure has mysterious or hidden tricks somewhere and the corners are this parts, not on the physical side but on the technical side especially if you are novice or beginner in this field.

so to make your understanding of this part of the framing somehow, easy and acceptable I will explain the framing of intersecting walls in order to minimize the marge of misunderstanding the functional parts of this work, keep reading and focus.

Framing Intersecting Walls

Virtually every framing project that you take on will involve an intersection of walls. The framing for this junction needs to do two things. First, it must create a solid foundation for bracing the intersecting wall. Second, it needs to provide nailing or screwing surfaces in the inside corners for drywall or other wall coverings.

The most common method to accomplish both tasks is to add blocking, as shown below. The type of blocking you use will depend on the type of wall (load-bearing vs. non-load-bearing) and how tight your budget is. Blocking can be full-length, partial, 1x6, or overlapping studs. Note: Although most interior walls are framed with 2x4s, walls that carry plumbing often need to be framed with 2x6s to allow clearance for the supply and waste lines. Check your local building code to make sure which of the intersections shown here are allowed in your area.

2x4 Walls with Full Blocking The most standard method used to connect intersecting 2x4 walls is to build a U-shaped column in one wall made from three studs: two wall studs and a full-length stud referred to as blocking (see the photo at right). The blocking then serves as a foundation to firmly attach the end stud of the intersecting wall. This method creates full1W’-wide surfaces in both inside corners. This supports the drywall fully and provides plenty of surface area for attaching drywall with nails or screws.

2x4 Walls with Partial Blocking If you’re looking for ways to save money on a large framing project, you can use the same method as described above but with a twist. Instead of using a full-length stud as blocking, you trim cutoffs to fit between the wall studs and then face-nail blocking every 2 feet or so. This will save money on studs, but it doesn’t fully support the intersecting wall as solidly as the method described above.

2x4 Walls with 1 x6 Another alternative method to create drywall surfaces in the corners of intersecting walls is to use install a full-length 1x6 (see the photo at left). Since the thinner 1 x6 serves as the foundation for the end stud of the intersecting wall, it’s not as solid as using 2-by material. This method should be used only for non-Ioadbearing partition walls that don’t have to support any weight. For better support, screw the 1 x6 to horizontal blocking added at 2-foot intervals.

Economy 2x4 Connedion The most economical way to connect intersecting 2x4 walls is to place two studs on one wall close enough together so that end stud of the intersecting wall can be face-nailed to them (see the photo at left). This method creates drywall surfaces, albeit narrow ones. It also saves money since you need one less stud for each transition compared to the standard method shown on page 66. If you’re framing a new wall or small structure like a shed, this won’t amount to much; but for contractors who build large structures, the savings can be considerable.

SHOP-MADE CHANNEL MARKER,

A shop-made channel marker is a quick and accurate way to layout wall intersections and corners on plating. Just screw together two 10″-long scraps of 2x4 as shown so that one end of the vertical piece extends about 3″ past the end of the horizontal piece.

To use the channel marker, place it at the desired location, with the vertical piece butted up firmly against the plating. Then run a pencil along each side of the horizontal piece to mark the channel.

How to Frame Corners

Just as there are various ways to frame intersecting walls, there are a number of methods to choose from for framing corners. Here again, the factors that affect your choice will be how strong you need the corner to be, what your budget is like, and what the local codes will allow.

The three-stud method shown below is the most common and is widely used throughout the construction industry. Other variations use fewer studs and may or may not use blocking.

 

Three-Stud Corner with Blocking One of the most common ways to build a corner is to use three studs and blocking, as shown in the photo at right. The blocking can be full-length or partial. This type of corner is the standard for most codes, as it provides a sturdy corner and creates solid nailing or screwing surfaces for drywall.

The first stud is nailed to the plating so its face is flush with the end. Then two more studs are nailed alongside this. The final stud is nailed to these so its ends are flush with the plating. Note: Although partial blocking can save material, it takes longer to install.

 

Three-Stud Corner without Blocking It’s possible to save a wall stud at each corner location by arranging three studs as shown in the photo. The first stud is nailed so that its face is flush with the end of the plating. The next stud is placed along its edge and nailed in place.

The last stud is nailed behind this to provide drywall surfaces on the inside corner. Note: Make sure to check your local building code to see whether this type of corner is allowed.

 

Two-Stud with Drywall Clips The least expensive corner you can build is also the weakest. This method uses only two studs and special metal clips commonly referred to as drywall clips or wallboard clips (see the photo and inset at left). Drywall clips are nailed or screwed to the stud 16″ on center and have a U-shaped channel to grip the drywall. Besides its economy, this method also allows you to run insulation almost to the end of the wall.

Here again, check your local building code to see whether this method of corner construction is allowed in your area. For the most part, I recommend this type of corner framing only for interior non-load-bearing partition walls.

 

2x6 Exterior walls are often framed with 2x6s to allow additional space for insulation. Two-by-six corners can be framed as shown in the photo at left. This method uses three 2x6s and a single 2x4. The 2x4 is inserted as blocking between two of the 2x6s. Start by nailing the first 2x6 to the plating so that its face is flush with the end of the plate.

Then position the 2x4 against its inside edge and face-nail it to the 2x6. Next, add the second 2x6 to form a U-shaped column. Finally, position the last 2x6 against the column and nail it in place.

Other Framing Types for Corners

  1. L-corners: Nail 2 × 4 spacers (A) to the inside of the end stud. Nail an extra stud (B) to the spacers. The extra stud provides a surface to attach wallboard at the inside corner.
  2. T-corner meets stud: Fasten 2 × 2 backers (A) to each side of the sidewall stud (B). The backers provide a nailing surface for wallboard.
  3. T-corner between studs: Fasten a 1 × 6 backer (A) to the end stud (B) with wallboard screws. The backer provides a nailing surface for wallboard.

Joining Sections Using Steel Studs

Steel studs and tracks have the same basic structure—a web that spans two flanged sides—but, studs also contain a ¼” lip to improve their rigidity.

 

Join sections with a spliced joint (A) or notched joint (B). Make a spliced joint by cutting a 2″ slit in the web of one track. Slip the other track into the slit and secure with a screw. For a notched joint, cut back the flanges of one track and taper the web so it fits into the other track; secure with a screw.

 

Build corners using a slip stud: A slip stud is not fastened until the adjacent drywall is in place. Form L-shaped corners (A) by overlapping the tracks. Cut off the flange on one side of one track, removing enough to allow room for the overlapping track and drywall.

Form a T-shaped corner (B) by leaving a gap between the tracks for the drywall. Secure each slip stud by screwing through the stud into the tracks of the adjacent wall.

Also screw through the backside of the drywall into the slip stud, if possible. Where there’s no backing behind the slip stud, drive screws at a 45° angle through the back corners of the slip stud and into the drywall.

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How to Frame A Partition Wall

How to Frame A Partition Wall

I’m currently in basement framing job, and my agent is my friend and he asked me: “what’s the easiest part in the framing? and I said: “of course it’s walls especially interior ones”.

In this article I will discuss on every detail that you need to build your partition walls or interior walls from scratch, so, be prepared and focus by keeping reading.

Introduction

Non-loadbearing or partition walls are typically built with 2× 4 lumber and are supported by the ceiling or floor joists above or by blocking between the joists. For basement walls that sit on bare concrete, use pressure-treated lumber for the bottom plates.

This project shows you how to build a wall in place, rather than how to build a complete wall on the floor and tilt it upright, as in new construction. The build-in-place method allows for variations in floor and ceiling levels and is generally much easier for remodeling projects.

If your wall will include a door or other opening, see my upcoming post before laying out the wall. Note: After your walls are framed and the mechanical rough-ins are completed, be sure to install metal protector plates where pipes and wires run through framing members.

Tools&Materials Chalk line ■ circular saw ■ framing square ■ plumb bob ■ powder-actuated nailer ■ T-bevel ■ 2 ×4 lumber ■ blocking lumber ■ 16d and 8d common nails ■ concrete fasteners ■ wallboard screws.

Variations for Fastening Top Plates to Joists

When a new wall is perpendicular to the ceiling or floor joists above, attach the top plate directly to the joists, using 16d nails.

When a new wall falls between parallel joists, install 2 × 4 blocking between the joists every 24″.The blocking supports the new wall’s top plate and provides backing for the ceiling wallboard. If the new wall is aligned with a parallel joist, install blocks on both sides of the wall, and attach the top plate to the joist.  

 

 

 

What is the most common material used for interior walls? Materials utilized in wall construction embody brick, stone, concrete, and clay blocks, cast-in-place concrete, rammed earth, sods, lumber sleepers, steel sheets, gabions, and earth-filled structures. Drywall, otherwise known as gypsum wallboard, has replaced plaster as the most common wall surface in US homes.It is used as a backing for wall treatments like wallpaper, fabric, tile, and wood panel.

Variations for Fastening Bottom Plates to Joists

If a new wall is aligned with a joist below, install the bottom plate directly over the joist or off-center over the joist (inset). The off-center placement allows you to nail into the joist but provides room underneath the plate for pipes or wiring to go up into the wall.

If a new wall falls between parallel joists, install 2 × 6 or larger blocking between the two joists below, spaced 24″ on center. Nail the bottom plate through the subfloor and into the blocking.

How to Build a Partition Wall

  • Mark the location of the leading edge of the new wall’s top plate, then snap a chalk line through the marks across the joists or blocks. Use a framing square, or take measurements, to make sure the line is perpendicular to any intersecting walls. Cut the top and bottom plates to length.

  • Set the plates together with their ends flush. Measure from the end of one plate, and make marks for the location of each stud. The first stud should fall 151⁄4″ from the end; every stud thereafter should fall 16″ on center. Thus, the first 4 × 8-ft. wallboard panel will cover the first stud and “break” in the center of the fourth stud. Use a square to extend the marks across both plates. Draw an “X” at each stud location.

  • Position the top plate against the joists, aligning its leading edge with the chalk line. Attach the plate with two 16d nails driven into each joist. Start at one end and adjust the plate as you go to keep the leading edge flush with the chalk line.

  • To position, the bottom plate, hang a plumb bob from the side edge of the top plate so the point nearly touches the floor. When it hangs motionless, mark the point’s location on the floor. Make plumb markings at each end of the top plate, then snap a chalk line between the marks. Position the bottom plate along the chalk line, and use the plumb bob to align the stud markings between the two plates.

  • Fasten the bottom plate to the floor. On concrete, use a powder-actuated nailer or masonry screws driving a pin or screw every 16″. On wood floors, use 16d nails driven into the joists or sleepers below.

  • Measure between the plates for the length of each stud. Cut each stud so it fits snugly in place but is not so tight that it bows the joists above. If you cut a stud too short, see if it will fit somewhere else down the wall.

  • Install the studs by toenailing them at a 60° angle through the sides of the studs and into the plates. At each end, drive two 8d nails through one side of the stud and one more through the center on the other side.

Blocking and Fireblocks Plan ahead for where you will install heavy items or bars and racks. The top photo below shows framing for a television: Wide wood pieces are secured to the metal studs, and short lengths of metal framing are anchored to the wall, then to the studs, for added stiffness. The bottom photo shows two types of blocking: the 2x4s on edge (with the wide part facing inward) are positioned where towel racks will be installed. The fl at-laid 2x4s are “fire blocking,” which is required in some areas and is always a good idea because it stiffens the framing.

Framing a Plumbing Wall

  • A plumbing wall encases large pipes, and so must be built with 2x6s or even 2x8s. Because the framing must be cut out substantially to accommodate pipes, work carefully to make the wall as strong as possible. Make your plate cutouts to fit snugly around pipes.
  • Attach the top plate to ceiling framing wherever possible and drive plenty of masonry screws for the floor plate. You may need to put studs at odd spacings. Mark the bottom plate for the stud locations and set a laser plumb tool on the layout line pointed up.
  • Where the level’s dot hits the top plate, draw a layout line. (Be sure to put the X on the same side as on the bottom plate.).
  • Cut studs and attach with toenails.

Provide access where needed Wherever there is a cleanout, shutoff valve, or other plumbing parts that may need to be accessed for servicing, be sure to install a removable panel. The same goes for any electrical box; it should not be permanently covered over.

AVOID PIPES IN THE FLOOR If there are pipes or tubing in the floor, and you have taken photos of them, be sure to refer to them to avoid disaster. Let the photos serve as a guide when you drive masonry screws or powder-actuated nails, so you don’t poke into the pipes.

Framing a shower stall

If you will use a formed concrete or plastic shower base, you must frame the shower to the size of the base, following the manufacturer’s specifications. (Here we will make a custom tiled base, so the exact size of the opening is not important.) For comfort, most people appreciate a shower that is at least 36 in. square. The sides are framed with blocking pieces to a height of 16 in. or so. At the front, two 2x4s are stacked and attached to the floor to form the step into the shower.

A well-framed shower stall includes blocking pieces at the bottom so the wall will stay firm even if kicked.

How to Frame a Door & Window Opening

How to Frame a Door & Window Opening

 If you want to install a door or a window in your house, you have to first frame the door and the window openings to prepare it for the installation.so then How do I frame a rough opening for a door? How do you frame a door or window header? How big should a rough opening for a window be?

today I will answer these questions and pass to you all the infos that you need to frame your doors in this post, keep reading and focus.

  Framing windows and doors

In new walls, build your door frames along with the rest of the wall. The project shown here demonstrates framing a rough opening for an interior prehung door in a new, non-load-bearing partition wall.

The basic steps are the same for closet doors. However, for large closet openings, such as for double bi-fold or by-pass doors, use a built-up header: two 2 ×4s set on edge and nailed together with a strip of 1⁄2″-thick plywood in between. This provides additional strength to support the weight of the doors.

Although most windows in a house are located in load-bearing exterior walls, standard attic windows are commonly located in gable walls, which often are non-load-bearing.

Installing a window in a non-load-bearing gable wall is fairly simple and doesn’t require temporary support for the framing. Some gable walls, however, are load-bearing: A common sign is a heavy structural ridge beam that supports the rafters from underneath, rather than merely at the rafter ends.

Hire a contractor to build window frames in load-bearing gable walls. If you aren’t certain what type of wall you have, consult a professional. A common problem with framing in a gable wall is that the positions of the floor joists may make it difficult to attach new studs to the bottom wall plate.

One solution is to install an extra-long header and sill between two existing studs, positioning them at the precise heights for the rough opening. You can then adjust the width of the rough opening by installing vertical studs between the header and sill. When planning the placement of attic windows, remember that the bottom of an egress window must be no higher than 44″ from the finished floor.

Windows lower than 24″ may require tempered glazing. To layout and build a door or window frame, you’ll need the actual dimensions of the door or window unit, so it’s best to have the unit on hand for the framing process.

Tools&Materials: Circular saw ■ handsaw ■ plumb bob, T-bevel ■ 4-ft.level, combination square ■ reciprocating saw ■ Framed door or window unit;2 ×4 lumber ■ 16d,10d, and 8d common nails ■ 1⁄2″-thick plywood ■ construction adhesive

How to Frame a Rough Opening for an Interior Prehung Door

  • To mark the layout for the studs that make up the door frame, measure the width of the door unit along the bottom. Add 1″ to this dimension to calculate the width of the rough opening (the distance between the jack studs). This gives you a 1⁄2″ gap on each side for adjusting the door frame during installation. Mark the top and bottom plates for the jack and king studs.
  • After you’ve installed the wall plates, cut the king studs and toenail them in place at the appropriate markings.
  • Measure the full length of the door unit, then add 1⁄2″ to determine the height of the rough opening. Using that dimension, measure up from the floor and mark the king studs. Cut a 2 × 4 header to fit between the king studs. Position the header flat, with its bottom face at the marks, and secure it to the king studs with 16d nails.
  • Cut and install a cripple stud above the header, centered between the king studs. Install any additional cripples required to maintain the 16″-on-center layout of the standard studs in the rest of the wall.
  • Cut the jack studs to fit snugly under the header. Fasten them in place by nailing down through the header, then drive 10d nails through the faces of the jack studs and into the king studs, spaced 16″ apart.
  • Saw through the bottom plate so it’s flush with the inside faces of the jack studs. Remove the cut-out portion of the plate. Note: If the wall will be finished with wallboard, hang the door after the wallboard is installed.

How to Frame a Window Opening in a Gable Wall (non-loadbearing)

  • Determine the rough opening width by measuring the window unit and adding 1″.Add 3″ to that dimension to get the distance between the king studs. Mark the locations of the king studs onto the bottom plate of the gable wall.
  • Using a plumb bob, transfer the king stud marks from the bottom plate to the sloping top plates of the gable wall.
  • Cut the king studs to length, angle cutting the top ends so they meet flush with the top plates. Fasten each king stud in place by toenailing the ends with three 8d nails.

  • Find the height of the rough opening by measuring the height of the window unit and adding 1⁄2″.Measure up from where the finished floor height will be, and mark the top of the sill. Make a second mark for the bottom of the sill, 3″ down from the top mark.
  • Measure up from the top sill mark, and mark the height of the rough opening (bottom of header). Make another mark 31⁄2″ up, to indicate the top of the header. Using a level, transfer all of these marks to the other king stud and to all intermediate studs.
  • Draw level cutting lines across the intermediate studs at the marks for the bottom of the sill and top of the header. Cut along the lines with a reciprocating saw, then remove the cut-out portions. The remaining stud sections will serve as cripple studs.

  • Cut the jack studs to reach from the bottom plate to the bottom header marks on the king studs. Nail the jack studs to the inside faces of the king studs using 10d common nails driven every 16″.
  • Build a built-up header with 2 × 4s and plywood. Size the header to fit snugly between the king studs. Set the header on top of the jack studs. Nail through the king studs into the header with 16d nails, then toenail the jack studs and cripple studs to the header, using 8d nails.
  • Build the sill to fit snugly between the jack studs by nailing together two 2 × 4s. Position the sill at the top sill markings, and toenail it to the jack studs. Toenail the cripple studs to the sill.

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How To Frame a Wall

How To Frame a Wall

if you’re about finishing your basement, then you need to know how to build a wall with it’s every little detail (trust me it’s very easy and simple then you imagin don’t panic at all).

Now I know what you’re saying: how it is done? and today I and two of my friends will share with you our Guaranteed experience and deep research by answering like these questions: How do you attach studs to the bottom plate? When building a wall how far apart are the studs? and many more related questions. so, keep reading and focus.

Frame a Wall in Basement (Basic)

When building a wall how far apart are the studs?

Most commonly, walls are framed with wood or metal 2x4s, though smaller- or larger-dimensioned studs and plates can be used. Studs are most commonly spaced 16 in. “on center,” meaning that the center of one stud is 16 in. away from the center of the next stud. The resulting space between studs is 141⁄2 in. If planned correctly.

Why are studs spaced 16 on center?

    This spacing ensures that the end of a full sheet of drywall—which is most often 96 in. long— will fall in the center of a stud,

so no extra framing is required. When you reach the end of a wall, the last stud is almost always spaced less than 16 in. on center.

Sometimes studs are spaced 24 in. on center, to save on material costs. However, this is not recommended: It creates a wall that is less sturdy, and it really saves very little money.

What material is used for basement walls?

Often builders use a combination of wood and metal studs. When building with wood, it’s common to use pressure-treated lumber for the bottom plate and standard non-treated boards for the studs and the top plate.

When building with wood, it’s best to build with 2x4s, but if space is tight you may choose to go with 2x3s. Metal framing comes in various widths, with 21⁄2-in. and 31⁄2-in. widths being the most common.

How Far Away From The Wall?

Building wall framing an inch or so away from the wall surface will leave ample room for adding R-13 insulation between the studs. However, if you need to add more insulation, consider moving the framing farther away.

If, for instance, you place the framing 21⁄2 in. away from the wall, you will have enough space for R-19 insulation. Your building official can provide details on which insulation is required.

Basement wall Framing Options

Framing and finishing walls is done the same way in the basement as it is elsewhere in the house. However, it’s a good idea to use pressure-treated lumber for sole plates that will rest on the concrete. I

f you’re covering your basement walls with drywall, choose a mold-resistant product. Some of these are paperless, eliminating the primary source of food for mold and mildew. Greenboard is standard drywall that has a moisture-resistant vinyl coating rather than paper and is often used in shower and tub surrounds.

Other types of drywall contain mold-inhibiting additives. Avoid moisture collecting finish surfaces such as wallpapers and paneling. No matter how you clad your basement walls, you’ll frame them in two basic ways. Walls built against masonry foundation walls are typically framed with furring strips.

This type of wall can be tricky, and you should read the section on insulation for an important discussion on the intricacies of building against a foundation wall.

Partition walls divide large spaces and are framed with standard construction grade 2 x 4s, or with metal studs. You can also frame walls along foundation walls in this manner (again, consult the section insulation).

LAYING OUT ON THE PLATES

-Whether you build a frame on the floor or piece in the studs one at a time, start by laying out the positions of the studs on the bottom and top plates. Position the plates according to your plan for framing a corner as shown in the drawing.

-Draw V-shaped marks with their points indicating every 16 in., minus 3⁄4 in. (151⁄4 in., 311⁄4 in., and so on). Then use a square to draw a line through the V points and across both plates, and draw an X next to the lines indicating which side of the line the studs will fall on.

 

1Draw V marks every 16 in., minus 3/4 in.
2Mark both plates with lines and Xs to show just where each

BLOCKING WHERE NEEDED

Where joists run parallel to the wall you will not be able to attach to joists at the top of the wall. So cut pieces of blocking—any 2-by lumber will do—and install them every 16 in. or so.

TRADE SECRET: For an extra measure of protection against water damage to your framing, put a layer of composite or vinyl decking material under the bottom plate. Be sure to use better-quality decking; cheap composite decking can swell with moisture. Rip-cut the decking to a width of 31⁄2 in. and fasten it to the bottom of the bottom plate. Of course, be sure to take the decking’s 1-in. thickness into account when you cut studs.

1-BUILDING A WOOD WALL FRAME ON THE FLOOR

If you have plenty of floor space and your joists are at a fairly consistent height, building a wall on the floor and raising it into position can be the fastest and most efficient way to build.

  • Determine the length of the studs. Stack two 2×4 scraps on top of each other, to represent the bottom and top plates and measure from the top of the stack to the underside of the joists that the wall will attach to at the top. Measure at every joist, because the distance can vary.
  • Take the shortest of the heights and subtract 1⁄4 in. or 3⁄8 in. Cut the studs to this dimension. (If the height gradually lengthens or shortens as you move along the length of the wall, you can cut the studs to gradually longer or shorter lengths; just be sure to number the studs and install them in order as you build the wall.) Cut the studs to length. You can use a circular saw, perhaps with a speed square as a guide. If you have a power miter saw (also called a chop saw), that is better. Set up a work surface on a table, on horses, or on the floor so you can easily position boards for cutting. Measure and mark with a straight line and an X indicating the waste side, and make the cut.
  • Often, studs are not straight; they usually have a “crown”—a slight curve along their length. For a straight-looking wall, all the studs’ crowns should face the same way. Sight down along each stud, and draw an arrow indicating the direction of the crown.
  • Arrange the plates and studs on the floor; the studs should have their crowns facing up. To fasten each stud, place its end to cover the X mark and align its side with the square line. Hold the stud so its edge is flush with the edge of the plate and drive two fasteners through the plate and into the stud.
  • Raise the stud wall into position.
  • Place 1-in. spacers between the bottom plate and the wall and check every few studs for plumb.
  • If the wall is loose, tap in shims at the bottom or top to snug it up. The wall should be at least 1 in. away from the insulation at all points. If needed, you may have to move the bottom plate out a bit farther.

 

  • Once the wall is snug and plumb, attach the bottom plate to the concrete floor. You can drill holes and drive masonry screws, but a faster way is to use an inexpensive powder-actuated nailer. Buy 2-in. or 21⁄4-in. nails and powder charges of two or more power levels. To use the model shown, load a nail, insert a powder charge (which has actual gunpowder), press the tip against the wood, and tap with the butt of your hand on top of the tool.
  • Drive screws or nails every 16 in. or so. If the nail does not sink all the way in, or if it goes in too far, use a charge of different power. Fasten the top plate to joists with nails or screws.

 

 

 

WHAT CAN GO WRONG: Few of life’s tragedies match the heartbreak of building and raising a just-too-tall wall, trying to knock it into position, then having to give up and take the thing apart so you can cut the studs a wee bit shorter. Don’t try to be precise or tight-fitting. Build a wall that is 1⁄4 in. or 3⁄8 in. shorter than you think is needed.

2-PIECING IN WOOD FRAMING

Because basement floors and the framing above can be uneven, many builders prefer to install the bottom and top plates, and then piece in the studs one at a time.

On a long wall, this is more time-consuming than building on a floor (especially if you are hand nailing), but it makes large mistakes less likely. On smaller walls, or where there are obstructions, piecing in is the only reasonable approach.

Start by attaching the top and bottom plates, which must be away from the wall the desired distance and plumb with each other. To mark for the positions of the plates, it helps to make this odd layout tool:

  • Cut spacers to the desired distance that you want the framing to be away from the wall, and attach them to one edge of a 2×4 that is a bit longer than the wall height. Then tape a level to the other edge of the 2×4. Hold this tool against the wall, and adjust its position until the level reads plumb; you may need to pull it away from the wall a bit. Draw a pencil mark where the front edge of the 2×4 rests on the floor.
  • Holding the 2×4 in position against the floor mark, also draw a mark on the framing above.
              1Measure and mark for plates that are the desired distance from the wall.

 

2If the wall is not plumb, you will need to pull it out a bit.
  • Test for plumb and mark the top and bottom in the same way every 3 ft. or 4 ft. along the length of the wall. Choose marks that are the closest to the wall near each end, and snap chalk lines between them, to mark the positions of the top and bottom plate.
  • Cut and mark the top and bottom plates as shown.

 

3 Snap chalk lines on the floor and on the framing above indicating the positions of the plates.
4 Mark both plates with stud locations.
  • Attach the plates to the floor and to the framing above.
  • At each stud location, measure between the plates for each board and cut.

5 After attaching the bottom plate with powder-actuated nails or masonry screws, screw the top plate to the framing.
6 Measure for cutting each stud individually
  • Ideally, each stud should fit fairly snugly, such that you need to tap it into place but don’t have to pound, that would lead to a curved stud.
  • Attach the studs with four angle-driven fasteners, also called toenails. They are usually driven two on each side, but you can also drive one in the front edge. Toenailing is easily done with a power nailer. If you are hand nailing, use 8-penny nails (often labeled “8d”). Or drive 2-in. or 21⁄2-in. screws; two screws per board should be strong enough.

7Tap studs into position; aim for a snug but not tight fit.
8Drive nails or screws at angles to attach the studs to the plates.

BEWARE OF FRAMING WITH 2X2S: Many basements have been framed with 2x2s (or flat-laid 2x4s) nailed directly to the concrete wall. Sometimes the 2x2s are attached with powder-actuated nails, but that is a poor approach since those nails are really designed just to keep boards from moving from side to side, not to attach boards structurally.

Framing attached with powder nails is notorious for coming loose. Attaching with masonry screws is a far more secure approach. But even if you use masonry screws, there is no guarantee that the boards will not become water damaged; mold is not uncommon inside walls built this way.

Also, the mere 11⁄2-in. thickness of the framing means there is precious little room for insulation. And framing this way can be more difficult than you expect, since concrete walls are often uneven, a lot of shimming and testing for straightness is needed if you want to end up with walls that are fairly straight.

For those reasons, this type of basement framing is less common today than it used to be. Still, if you are quite certain that your walls will stay dry, don’t need insulation, and are not bothered by walls that wave a bit, this can be an economical approach.

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