How to Replace a Dishwasher

How to Replace a Dishwasher

A dishwasher that’s past its prime may be inefficient in more ways than one. If it’s an old model, it probably wasn’t designed to be very efficient, to begin with.

But more significantly, if it no longer cleans effectively, you’re probably spending a lot of time and hot water pre-rinsing the dishes. This alone can consume more energy and water than a complete wash cycle on a newer machine.

So even if your old dishwasher still runs, replacing it with an efficient new model can be a good green upgrade. In terms of sizing and utility hookups, dishwashers are generally quite standard.

If your old machine is a built-in and your countertops and cabinets are standard sizes, most full-size dishwashers will fit right in. Of course, you should always measure the dimensions of the old unit before shopping for a new one to avoid an unpleasant surprise at installation time. Also,

Be sure to review the manufacturer’s instructions before starting any work.

On this post, I will share with you the maximum amount of experience that I have made through my Xjob, focus and keep reading.

What do I need to Replace a Dishwasher?

These are the tools that you must have before you start replacing your dishwasher: Screwdrivers, Adjustable wrench, 2-ft. level, 5⁄8″ automotive heater hose, automotive heater hose, 4″-length of 1⁄2″ copper tubing, Cable connector, Teflon tape, Hose clamps, Wire connectors, Carpet scrap, and Bowl.

How long does it take to replace a dishwasher?

Replacing an old, inefficient dishwasher is a straightforward project that usually takes just a few hours especially if the dishwasher was a standard one, it will take no more than 2 hours as maximum for removing existing to installing and testing a new dishwasher. The energy savings begin with the first load of dishes and continue with every load thereafter.

How much does it cost to replace a dishwasher?

When you are replacing an existing dishwasher, the installation will include minor adjustments to countertops, Plumbing, or wiring. Typical labor runs between 150$ to 475$, with most homeowners paying 300$. but the best thing is that you can replace it with yourself easily, and save 100% of the cost.

Steps to Replace a Dishwasher

1. Start by shutting off the electrical power to the dishwasher circuit at the service panel. Also, turn off the water supply at the shutoff valve, usually located directly under the floor.

2. Disconnect old plumbing connections. First, unscrew the front access panel. Once the access panel is removed, disconnect the water supply line from the L-fitting on the bottom of the unit.

This is usually a brass compression fitting, so just turning the compression nut counterclockwise with an adjustable wrench should do the trick. Use a bowl to catch any water that might leak out when the nut is removed.

3. Disconnect old wiring connections. The dishwasher has an integral electrical box at the front of the unit where the power cable is attached to the dishwasher’s fixture wires.

Take off the box cover and remove the wire connectors that join the wires together.

4. Disconnect the discharge hose, which is usually connected to the dishwasher port on the side of the garbage disposer. To remove it, just loosen the screw on the hose clamp and pull it off.

You may need to push this hose back through a hole in the cabinet wall and into the dishwasher compartment so it won’t get caught when you pull the dishwasher out.

5. Detach the unit from the cabinets before you pull it out. Remove the screws that hold the brackets to the underside of the countertop.

Then put a piece of cardboard or old carpet under the front legs to protect the floor from getting scratched, and pull the dishwasher out.

6. First, prepare the new dishwasher. Tip it on its back and attach the new L-fitting into the threaded port on the solenoid.

Apply some Teflon tape or pipe sealant to the fitting threads before tightening it in place to prevent possible leaks.

7. Prepare for the wiring connections. Like the old dishwasher, the new one will have an integral electrical box for making the wiring connections. To gain access to the box, just remove the box cover.

Then install a cable connector on the back of the box and bring the power cable from the service panel through this connector. Power should be shut off at the main service panel at all times.

8. Install a leveling leg at each of the four corners while the new dishwasher is still on its back. Just turn the legs into the threaded holes designed for them.

Leave about 1⁄2″ of each leg projecting from the bottom of the unit. These will have to be adjusted later to level the appliance. Tip the appliance up onto the feet and slide it into the opening. Check for level in both directions and adjust the feet as required.

9. Once the dishwasher is level, attach the brackets to the underside of the countertop to keep the appliance from moving. Then pull the discharge hose into the sink cabinet and install it so there’s a loop that is attached with a bracket to the underside of the countertop.

This loop prevents wastewater from flowing from the disposer back into the dishwasher. Note: Some codes require that you install an air gap fitting for this purpose. Check with your local plumbing inspector.

10. Push an adapter over the disposer’s discharge nipple and tighten it in place with a hose clamp. If you don’t have a disposer, replace one of the drain tailpieces with a dishwasher tailpiece, and clamp the discharge tube to its fitting.

11. Adjust the L‑fitting on the dishwasher’s water inlet valve until it points directly toward the water supply tubing. Then lubricate the threads slightly with a drop of dishwashing liquid and tighten the tubing’s compression nut onto the fitting. Keeping the brass bushing between the nut and the L-fitting.

Use an adjustable wrench and turn the nut clockwise.

12. Complete the electrical connections by clamping the cable and joining the wires with wire nuts, following manufacturer’s instructions.

Replace the electrical cover, usually by hooking it onto a couple of prongs and driving a screw. Restore power and water, and test. Replace the toe-kick.

Tube Choices, Note: Codes still allow copper supply tubes like the one shown, but a 4‑ to 5‑ft. flexible dishwasher supply tube is a better choice if you are likely to be sliding the appliance in and out. A copper tube is less likely to burst, so it may be preferable in cases where the appliance is unlikely to be moved.

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HVAC Heating and Air Conditioning

HVAC Heating and Air Conditioning

Safety is the primary focus of code provisions governing heating and air conditioning systems.

Improper appliance installation can cause the appliance to malfunction, creating a fire hazard as well as the potential for carbon monoxide poisoning.

Fuel-burning appliances, such as gas and oil furnaces, must be installed in safe locations and must be provided with enough outside air to support fuel combustion. Vents for these appliances must be installed so that they do not ignite combustible materials and so that combustion gases are not circulated back into the building.

In this post, you will learn about the safe installation of heating and air conditioning appliances and their associated venting equipment. You will also learn about how to identify improperly installed forced-air ducts that can increase your energy costs and decrease your appliance’s useful life. focus and keep reading.

HVAC Appliances

Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems are often referred to as a group by the term HVAC.

This is because they share a common purpose: to keep the air in your home comfortable. All HVAC systems—even hot-water-based systems— rely on the flow of air to heat, cool, and ventilate your home.

Most homes today include two separate major appliances in the HVAC system: a furnace and a central air conditioning unit. In most cases, even when the AC has been retrofitted, the appliances share ductwork.

The information in this chapter is intended mostly for general education purposes and to assist with diagnosing system problems. Unless you are a very experienced DIYer, installing and servicing HVAC equipment is a job best left to professionals.



Central air conditioner parts include: (A) Power shutoff for service personnel, (B) Condenser unit, (C) Fan, (D) Condenser coil, (E) Compressor, (F) Plenum, (G) Evaporator coil, (H) Blower motor, (I) Filter, (J) Air return.
Gas furnace parts include (A) Heat exchanger, (B) Circulating fan/blower motor, (C) Vent damper, (D) Vent connector/flue, (E) Combustion chamber, (F) Burners, (G) Blower motor.

Prohibited Locations for Appliance Installation

  1. Do not locate gas or other fuel-burning appliances in bedrooms, bathrooms, toilet rooms, or storage closets. Do not draw combustion air for any fuel-burning appliance from these rooms regardless of where the appliance is located.
  2. Do not locate appliances anywhere that is not approved by the manufacturer’s instructions.
  3. Do not apply this provision to appliances powered by electricity.

Exceptions: Prohibited Locations for Appliance Installation

  1. You may install direct-vent appliances in prohibited locations if the appliance draws all combustion air directly from the outdoors.
  2. You may install vented room heaters, vented wall furnaces, vented decorative appliances, and decorative appliances listed for installation in vented, solid fuel-burning fireplaces (such as gas logs) in prohibited locations if the room satisfies combustion air volume requirements.
  3. You may install one listed, wall-mounted, unvented room heater in a bathroom if the appliance has an oxygen depletion safety shutoff system, if the appliance input rating is not more than 6,000 BTU/hour, and if the bathroom satisfies combustion air volume requirements.
  4. You may install one listed, wall-mounted, unvented room heater in a bedroom if the appliance has an oxygen depletion safety shutoff system, if the appliance input rating is not more than 10,000 BTU/hour, and if the bedroom satisfies combustion air volume requirements.
  5. You may install appliances in an enclosure accessible from the prohibited locations if all combustion air is drawn directly from the outdoors and if the enclosure is equipped with a self-closing door that is weather-stripped.
  6. The standard combustion air volume requirement is at least 50 cubic feet per 1,000 BTU/hour appliance input rating. This standard volume requirement does not apply if the home is tightly sealed with a known air infiltration rate of less than 0.40 air changes per hour. Tightly sealed homes are rare.



A typical forced air heating system delivers heated air to a room through registers while drawing cool air through return ducts. The cool air is reheated in the furnace and recirculated for maximum efficiency. A fresh air intake provides a constant supply of combustion air.
An air intake vent that draws combustion air into the system allows you to install appliances in areas that lack adequate combustion air. The vent shown is for a high-efficiency gas furnace.



electric baseboard heaters often are used to provide supplementary heat. Models (such as the one above) that do not produce external temperatures greater than 125° F may be mounted directly to drywall walls, but a clear space should be maintained between the appliance and the floor.

Electric Radiant (baseboard) Heating Systems

Electric radiant heating systems provide heat to a single room. They usually have no fan and provide heat by the natural movement of the heated air and by thermal radiation.

They are common in small, seasonally occupied buildings, some rural homes, and in buildings without ducts for forced-air heating and cooling. These elements become very hot, and proper installation is important to prevent fires and electrical problems.

Installation Requirements

  1. Install electric radiant heating panels according to the manufacturer’s installation instructions and applicable provisions of general and local codes.
  2. Install radiant panels parallel to wood framing members and fasten the panels to the surface of the framing members or mount the panels between framing members.
  3. Install fasteners only in areas of the appliance’s radiant panel designed for fasteners. Install fasteners at least ¼ inch away from a heating element.
  4. Install radiant panels as complete units, unless listed and labeled for field modifications.
  5. Do not install radiant panels on drywall unless the panel’s maximum operating temperature is not more than 125 degrees Fahrenheit.

Estimate Your Heater Needs

  1. measure the area of the room in square feet (length × width):
  2. Divide the area by 10 to get the baseline minimum wattage:
  3. Add 5% for each newer window or 10% for each older window:
  4. Add 10% for each exterior wall in the room:
  5. Add 10% for each exterior door:
  6. Add 10% if space below is not insulated:
  7. Add 20% if space above is not well insulated:
  8. Add 10% if the ceiling is more than 8 ft. high:
  9. Total of the baseline wattage plus all additions:
  10. Divide this number by 250 (the wattage produced per foot of standard baseboard heater):
  11. Round up to a whole number. This is the minimum number of feet of heater you need.

HVAC Appliance & Duct Sizing

Appliance Sizing

Size heating and cooling appliances according to The Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual S or a similar approved method.

Manual S and Manual J account for conditions such as the direction the structure faces, the size and type of windows and doors, local temperature conditions, and insulation.

Contractors should provide a copy of the sizing calculations for all new construction and when replacing existing appliances. Improper appliance sizing may cause inefficient appliance operation or may allow excessive moisture to remain in the home. Excessive moisture can damage the home and provide moisture for mold growth.

Air Conditioner Condensate Disposal

The process of removing heat from the air is often called air conditioning. Water is a byproduct of air conditioning because water vapor condenses out from the air when the air temperature is reduced.

In areas with high humidity, air conditioning can produce significant amounts of water. The water removed from the air during air conditioning is called condensate.

Condensate Disposal Location Requirements

Do not discharge condensate on to a street, alley, or any other place that would create a nuisance.

Some jurisdictions, particularly in warm moist areas, require that you discharge condensate away from the foundation. Verify discharge location requirements with the local building official.

Condensate Discharge Pipe Requirements



Condensate from air conditioner units should be directed to a drain through discharge pipes.

  1. Use at least 3⁄4-inch diameter pipe for primary and auxiliary condensate discharge pipes. Do not decrease pipe size between the collection and discharge point.
  2. Install horizontal pipe sections with a uniform slope in the direction of the discharge point of at least 1⁄8 inch in 12 inches.
  3. Use fittings, primers, cement, hangers, and other components that are compatible with the pipe material. Install the pipe according to the provisions in general codes.
  4. Use pipe material and use a pipe size that will accommodate the condensate temperature, pressure, and flow rate produced by the air conditioning system.
  5. You may use most water supply and drain pipes for condensate discharge pipes. The most common condensate discharge pipes are PVC, CPVC, and ABS.
  6. Connect a condensate pump to the appliance it serves so that the appliance will not operate if the pump will not operate. This applies to pumps located in spaces such as attics and crawlspaces.

Condensate Auxiliary (backup) System Requirements

  1. Install an auxiliary condensate system when the air conditioner evaporator coil is located where building damage may occur if the primary condensate discharge system malfunctions. This usually applies to evaporator coils installed in or above finished space. Many jurisdictions require auxiliary condensate systems for all air conditioning systems unless all of the equipment is located outside the building.
  2. Install one of the following auxiliary condensate systems when an auxiliary condensate system is required. (a) Condensate auxiliary drain pan with discharge pipe.
  3. Install an auxiliary drain pan under the evaporator coil. Use a pan that is at least 1½ inches deep and at least three inches larger than the evaporator coil in both length and width.
  4. Construct the pan using either at least 0.0276-inch galvanized sheet metal or at least a 0.0625-inch, nonmetallic pan.
  5. Slope the pan toward the discharge pipe connection. Install the auxiliary discharge pipe using the same materials and methods as the primary discharge pipe.
  6. Terminate the auxiliary discharge pipe at a conspicuous point so that the occupants can see that the primary condensate discharge system is not functioning properly (a conspicuous point often means above a window). (b) Water level cutoff switch.
  7. Install a water level cutoff switch above the primary condensate discharge pipe where it connects to the evaporator coil and below the evaporator coil interior condensate pan overflow rim, or you may install the switch in the primary or secondary discharge pipes. The switch location should allow the switch to shut off the air conditioner before the water overflows into the building.

Maintenance Tip: Keep Discharge Tubes Clear Condensate discharge tubes that run from your air conditioner evaporator have a strong tendency to become clogged with mildew, algae, bacteria, and other unappealing nuisances. To prevent clogging, flush the discharge tube every couple of months with a solution of 2 tablespoons household chlorine bleach dissolved into a cup of hot water.

HVAC Duct Installation

Improper duct installation and duct damage are common problems. Ducts that leak, have sharp bends, or sag reduce the volume of air that moves through the duct and increases the friction between the air and the duct walls. This causes the HVAC system to work harder and longer than necessary, wasting energy and money.

Flexible HVAC Duct Installation

General Installation Requirements

  1. Install flexible ducts according to the manufacturer’s installation instructions. The installation instructions that follow are based on material from the Air Diffusion Council. The full, original version may be downloaded from their website.
  2. Use flexible ducts that are labeled at least every 36 inches with information such as the manufacturer’s name and the R-value of the duct insulation.
  3. Do not expose flexible ducts to direct sunlight such as may occur under roof vents. Direct sunlight can damage the duct outer cover.
  4. Extend flexible duct to its full length. Do not leave excess duct material in a duct run and do not compress the duct.

Duct Support

  1. Support flexible ducts using material at least 1½ inches wide. You may support flexible ducts on 1½-inch-wide framing.
  2. Support flexible ducts at not more than 4-foot intervals. You may use a fitting or distribution plenum to provide initial flexible duct support.
  3. Do not allow the flexible duct to sag between supports more than ½ inch per foot.
  4. Support bends in long horizontal runs of the flexible duct at not more than one duct diameter on both sides of the bend.
  5. Support bends in a flexible duct that occurs near the plenum connection. Allow flexible ducts to run at least several inches beyond a plenum connection before making a bend.
  6. Provide independent support for duct fittings and distribution plenums. Support duct fittings at not more than one foot from the fitting.
  7. Support vertical runs of the flexible duct at more than six-foot intervals.

Duct Bends

  1. Do not bend flexible ducts at sharp angles across obstructions such as framing lumber and pipes. Such bends reduce the duct area and restrict air flow.
  2. Do not bend flexible ducts so that the bend radius at the centerline is less than one duct diameter.
  3. Avoid changing the shape of the duct. The area of a round duct is greater than the area of the same duct compressed into an ellipse.



flexible ductwork may not be bent at an overly tight angle. The radius of any curved bend should be no less than the diameter of the duct.



intervals between supports (hangers) for flexible HVAC ductwork can be no more than 4 ft. apart.

Duct Connections & Splices

  1. Connect and splice ducts according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
  2. Connect flexible ducts to metal collars that are at least two inches long.
  3. Splice two ducts together using a metal sleeve at least four inches long.
  4. Use approved clamps and tape to secure nonmetallic flexible ducts to metal collars and sleeves.
  5. Use approved tape and mastic to seal duct collars, plenums, and other fittings to ensure minimum air leakage.

Duct Insulation And Sealing

  1. Insulate HVAC supply ducts located in attics to at least R-8. Insulate all other ducts to at least R-6.
  2. You are not required to insulate ducts that are completely within conditioned space.
  3. Seal ducts, furnaces, air handler, filter boxes, junction boxes, and fittings.
  4. Verify duct and air handler sealing with a duct pressure test. You may perform this test during rough-in or after final installation of the HVAC system. Refer to the IRC for test requirements.
  5. Do not use framing cavities such as stud walls and floor framing as HVAC ducts or plenums.

Prohibited Sources for Return & Outdoor Air

Prohibited Sources of Return Air

  • 1. Do not locate a return air register in a closet, bathroom, toilet room, kitchen, garage, mechanical room, furnace room or closet.
  • Do not locate a return register closer than 10 feet in any direction to an open combustion chamber or to a draft hood-equipped appliance. Common examples of these prohibited sources include a fireplace and a water heater.
  • Do not take more return air from a room or space than is supplied to that room or space

Prohibited Sources of Outdoor Air

  1. Locate outdoor air intake openings connected to forced-air heating and cooling systems at least 10 feet horizontally from contaminant sources including gas equipment vents, chimneys, plumbing vents, or the discharge outlet of an exhaust fan.
  2. You may locate outdoor air intake openings closer than 10 feet horizontally to a contaminant source if the outdoor air intake opening is at least three feet below the contaminant source.
  3. Do not locate outdoor air intake openings where objectionable odors, fumes, or flammable vapors may be present.
  4. Locate outdoor air intake openings at least 10 feet above a public walkway or driveway.
  5. Do not locate outdoor air intake openings at grade level next to a sidewalk, street, alley, or driveway.
  6. Provide an automatic or gravity-operated damper for air intake systems that will close the damper when the system is not operating.


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How To Run Supply Lines In Your Basement

How To Run Supply Lines In Your Basement

Supply Pipes

Supply pipes, which bring pressurized water to your fixtures, are generally installed after the DWV pipes have been installed. Planning and running supply pipes is far less complicated than running DWV pipes. Supply pipes can be sloped in any direction and can run hither and yon, the only caveat being they must be connected correctly so they don’t leak.

Older homes often have gray-colored galvanized steel supply pipes. It’s a very good idea to replace these with either copper or PEX pipe because galvanized pipes corrode and clog, often leading to low water pressure and leaks after some decades. Some homes have white plastic PVC supply pipe, which has proved unreliable and may leak in time. Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) pipe, which is a cream-colored plastic, is more trustworthy. In the following pages, I’ll show how to install the two most common supply pipes: copper and PEX.

Tools for working with copper: standard-size tubing cutter; small tubing cutter for tight spaces; plumber’s tape (sanding mesh); wire brush; flux and a flux brush; propane torch; protective heat shield.

Working With Copper

Though PEX has surpassed it in popularity in some areas, copper is still a very common choice for supply pipe and is required by codes in many locales. The process of soldering copper pipes to fittings may seem daunting at first glance. But with less than an hour of practice, you will likely be able to “sweat” copper with ease.

-WHAT CAN GO WRONG: Deburring the cut end of copper pipes should become a habit because it’s important. Any burrs left in the pipe will slightly impede water flow, and a good number of them will seriously slow the flow.-

For the sake of clarity, I’ll first show sweating on a tabletop, although much sweating is done with pipes assembled in place. Though none of the steps for cutting and soldering copper are difficult, it is important that you do all of them. Skipping any step will result in faulty joints.

  • Measure for cutting pipes by holding them in place or using a tape measure. To cut, slip the pipe onto a tubing cutter and gently tighten the tool until the cutting wheel starts to bite into the copper.
  • Turn the tool all the way around the pipe until you stop feeling resistance. Then tighten the knob a bit and turn again until you stop meeting resistance. Repeat until the cut is complete.
  • Insert the reaming blade of the tool, or insert the head of a pair of pliers into the cut end and twist to remove burrs.
  • Dry-assemble a number of fittings and pipes to be sure they all fit, then dismantle them in order and start sweating. First, use a small piece of sandpaper called “plumber’s cloth” or a wire brush to burnish the outside ends of the pipes until they gleam brightly. Then do the same for the insides of the fittings.
  • Then apply a generous amount of flux to the burnished pipe ends and fitting insides.
  • Reassemble the pipes. (In a normal installation, you might cut, burnish, flux, and assemble 12 or more pieces, but for clarity, I’ll show sweating just one joint.) Turn on a propane torch and adjust so the flame makes a pointed shape about 4 in. to 6 in. long. Apply its tip to the fitting—not the pipe—until you see the flux begin to bubble.
  • Once the fitting is very hot, apply the tip of plumbing solder to a joint. It should melt and suck into the joint all around.
  • If it does not melt and suck in, reheat the fitting and start again. If two or more attempts fail, disassemble the parts and start again with burnishing and fluxing. Once all the ends of fitting have been soldered, brush them with flux to start smoothing things out, then wipe with a damp rag.

Running Copper Pipes Through Walls

Although it’s extra trouble to keep pipes in the center of studs, it is there where they are safe from the sharp tips of standard-length drywall screws or nails. You may choose to run pipes in simpler ways, but if so, be sure to use protective plates to protect them from drywall fasteners.

To tap into existing supply lines, be sure to shut off the water to those pipes and open faucets downstream to clear out all water.

  • Mark for cutting them in two places so they can be inserted into a T fitting.
  • Make the cuts using a small tubing cutter if space is tight. Tighten, twirl the cutter all the way around, tighten, and repeat until the cut is made.
  • Dry-fit the Ts. If you need to go around a pipe and stay in the center of a stud, use a number of “street elbows,” which have one female and one male end.
  • Measure to the centers of the pipes and mark nearby studs for cutting holes.
  • Use a right-angle drill to bore holes for the pipes to travel through.
  • Assemble all or most of an installation in a dry run, then disassemble, burnish, apply flux, reassemble, and solder all the joints.
STUBBING OUT: A strap like this holds copper pipes fi rmly in place where they emerge from the wall. Run pipes through the holes and screw the strap to studs. Apply fl ux and solder the pipes to the strap.

PROTECTIVE PLATE: Protective Plates A screw or nail can easily pierce copper pipe, causing a serious problem. If a pipe is run through the center of a 2x4, a 15⁄8-in. drywall screw driven through 1⁄2-in. drywall will not be able to reach it, so no protective nailing plate is required. (And most drywall screws are only 11⁄4 in. long.) If the pipe is nearer to the edge of the framing, be sure to attach a metal protective plate.

Working With PEX

Extruded or cross-linked polyethylene tubing, usually referred to as PEX pipe or tubing, is a common material for water supplies in many parts of the country. It is certainly the most economical solution: The material itself is far cheaper than copper, and it is much easier and quicker to install. Whereas sweating copper takes some practice and skill, connecting PEX is quite simple, as long as you make sure to fully tighten all the joints.

There are three different ways to join PEX. Pros may use a very expensive tool to make expansion joints. Another method uses crimp rings; this method is less expensive, but some people find it difficult to fully tighten joints. Here, I’ll show the simplest and least expensive method:

PEX clamps, which require some muscle but not as much as crimp rings. If you have only a few connections to make, consider using push-on (SharkBite) fittings, which are expensive but very easy to attach. PEX fittings may be plastic or metal. Both types have proved themselves reliable.

  • Measure for PEX lengths, taking into account any bends you may need to make. Because the tubing is so flexible, you can add an inch or so. Mark for cutting with a felt-tipped pen.
  • PEX is easy to cut. Do not use a saw, which will leave burrs that need to be scraped away. A PEX or tubing cutter like the type shown makes quick work of cutting.
  • Be sure the cut is nice and square; an angled cut may produce a joint that leaks. PEX fittings, which may be Ts, elbows, or other types, slip inside the tubing. To make a connection, first slip clamps onto each of the pipe ends.

WHAT CAN GO WRONG: PEX is even easier to puncture with a screw or nail than copper. Protect tubing with metal plates, as shown on p. 123.

  • Then slip the tubing onto the fitting at each end.
  • You may need to slide the clamps down a couple of inches, slide the pipes onto the fitting, and then slide the clamps back into position. Check to be sure that each clamp is positioned completely over the barbed end of the fitting, so it will fasten securely to the fitting. Slip the tip of the clamp tool onto the clamp’s wings. Use two hands to start tightening, then finish by tightening the 3Slip handles all the way together.
  • Check that the clamps are completely over the barbed fitting ends. If you cannot fully tighten the tool, or if the clamp is partway off the fitting’s barb or at an angle, cut the tubing and start again.

PEX tools & materials

PEX comes in red and blue colors, for hot and cold supplies. Cut with a tubing cutter made for PEX. Fittings such as elbows and Ts may be plastic or metal. Instead of the clamp tools and rings shown in the steps here, you may choose to use crimp rings and a crimping tool.

Turning a corner and stubbing out

PEX is just flexible enough to turn a right angle by itself, but doing so requires a fairly wide sweep, and you may accidentally crimp the tubing. Instead, use right-angle brackets. These are plastic, with tabs for attaching to a brace. You can also buy metal brackets without tabs, for tighter spots.

  • Attach wood framing braces between studs. Drive screws to attach the brackets, and snap the PEX into the brackets.
  • Cut the tubing to the same height.
  • PEX is rigid enough that you could actually poke it out of the wall and connect a stop valve directly to it, but for a firmer installation use special copper stub-outs. Screw plastic clamps just above the cut ends of the tubing.
  • Attach stubouts to the PEX ends, and snap them onto the clamps.

Transition Fittings

When connecting two different types of pipe—most commonly copper, PEX, or galvanized steel— use a fitting made for the purpose. In this example, a straight coupling is soldered onto a copper pipe and will be joined to PEX pipe with a straight coupling. Transition fittings may also be elbows or Ts and can accommodate any type of supply pipe.

Push-on fittings

Often referred to by the brand name SharkBite, push-on fittings resolve many supply-pipe situations with amazing ease. Once you buy the correct fitting and make clean cuts in pipe ends, you simply push the pipes into the fitting—usually with no tool required—to achieve a reliably watertight connection.

Fittings may be elbows, Ts, couplings, or other shapes. And they can connect to copper or PEX. The downside is the price—about $10 per fitting—but if you have only a few connections to make, or if you are in a tight or hard-to-reach spot, push-on fittings are well worth the cost. Here, we show installing a T fitting onto existing copper pipe, and connecting to PEX pipe.

  • Cut the copper pipe to receive the T, and use plumber’s cloth or a wire brush to remove any raised edges or burrs from pipe ends.
  • Push copper pipe into two ends of the fitting and make sure they seat all the way into the fitting.
  • Pull hard on all the pipes to make sure the connection holds. Push the PEX pipe into the remaining fitting. You can also use this fitting for CPVC pipe, if your home happens to have that.

Plumbing Vent Diagram

Plumbing Vent Diagram

IF you do some searches about plumbing Vent Diagram today, you will face many questions about this topic especially if you want to do that with yourself and absolutely, you will ask these questions: Can a plumbing vent run horizontally? Can you drain into a vent pipe? How far can a vent pipe be from the drain? How high does a plumbing vent need to be? How many fixtures do I need for 2 drains?

So with my experience and the long researches I have done, I will answer these questions and more in this article, so you need to read carefully and follow the instructions, see you there.

Understanding DWV lines

The term DWV commonly refers to drain, waste, and vent lines. Drain and waste pipes (we need not worry here about the difference between the two) are easy to understand: They carry liquid and solid waste out of the house.

Vent pipes are not as well known but are just as important. They provide air behind the flow of waste, so the waste can flow smoothly, without gurgling. Vent pipes also keep noxious gases from entering the home.


Somewhere in the basement, you will see at least one large-diameter (usually 4-in.) vertical drainpipe called the “main stack” or “soil stack.” Typically, drainpipes from two or more bathrooms in floors above-and other plumbing fixtures as well-feed into the main stack. The main stack runs down to a horizontal building drainpipe that usually runs under the concrete floor.

Most homes have more than one stack. Often there is a secondary stack, perhaps 2 in. or 3 in. in diameter, usually serving the kitchen. Secondary stacks also run into the building drainpipe under the basement floor.

Drainpipe Slope

A horizontal drainpipe must slope downward at least 1⁄4 in. per running foot. An easy way to test for this is to tape a 1⁄2-in.-thick block to one end of a 2-ft. level; when the bubble reads level, the slope is correct. A stronger slope is fine—even preferable—but a flatter slope at any point along the pipe’s path will lead to drainage problems.

Drainpipes And Vent Pipes

A number of “branch” drainpipes run from fixtures, either vertically or horizontally at a downward slope, into a stack. These pipes are often 11⁄2 in. or 2 in. in diameter. (Nowadays plumbers typically use 2-in. pipes.) A horizontal drainpipe must slope at a rate of at least 1⁄4 in. per running foot.

Vent pipes are needed to ensure that there will always be air behind the flowing waste. If there is no air, the waste will not flow smoothly and may get stuck in the pipes. Also, without proper venting, waste can siphon up into sinks and toilets. And vent pipes ensure against the entry of poisonous gases into your house.

Vent pipes must lead all the way up and out the house’s roof. In some cases, a single vent pipe runs from a fixture up through the roof, but more often vents from several fixtures tie into the main vent that runs out the roof.

Drain-Waste-Vent System

This overview shows common plumbing installations in a house. Here there are no vent pipes in the basement; in some newer homes, a vent pipe is provided.

If you are lucky, there may be an existing vent pipe nearby in the basement. Often the solution is to run a vent pipe up to the first floor and tie into an existing pipe there.

The Importance Of Venting

Unless local codes allow for the use of air admittance valves (AAVs), the first question you must ask when planning new plumbing service is: How will it be vented?Remember that a vent must run all the way up through the roof; starting in a basement, that can be difficult. “Wet venting,” using the main stack as a vent pipe even though it also acts as a drainpipe, is often not allowed.

Arcane and complicated rules apply to plumb vents, and you should consult with a plumber or your building department before running any vent lines. Perhaps the most important code is this: A horizontal revent pipe, which ties into a nearby vertical vent pipe, can, in most cases, be no longer than 5 ft. Therefore, any new services need to be pretty close to the existing vent pipe.


Drainpipes do get clogged from time to time, so codes require that there be cleanouts—places where you can unscrew a plug and insert a plumber’s rod—at certain points. If you remove a cleanout, be sure to install another one nearby. And if you install new pipes, be sure to include new cleanouts. Cleanout plugs must be accessible, which sometimes means installing a removable panel in a wall.

If you are lucky, there may be a vent pipe already installed in your basement. (That is often the case in newer homes.) If not, you may need to run a vent pipe up to the first floor and tie into an existing pipe there. Worst-case scenario: You have to run a new vent pipe all the way up through the ceiling.

Running a Vent Pipe Up

Running a vent pipe up through the basement ceiling and tying into a vent on the first floor is not complicated plumbing, but it can be a real pain to get at the pipes; often you must cut walls open, plumb, and then replace, patch, sand, and paint the drywall or plaster. If possible, position your new service so its vent pipe will be directly below the vent pipe above.

  • Open up the wall on the first floor to expose the vent pipe. Use a level or laser level to locate the spot on the first-floor bottom
  • framing plate that is directly above your basement vent pipe.
  • Drill a locator hole up through the plate (a long drill bit helps), then drill a large hole down from the first floor. Make a connection in the basement.
  • and tie into the first-floor vent pipe with a horizontal vent pipe.
  • In extreme cases, you may need to run a vent pipe all the way up and out the roof. In that case, you should probably hire a roofer to patch the hole, install rubber flashing around the vent pipe, and install roofing as needed.

An AVS To The Rescue, Maybe

All this venting trouble may be avoided if your local codes allow for the use of AAVs. Sometimes called mechanical vents, these handy little devices have internal flaps that open when the pipe is draining and close when the draining is finished. Though they are looked down upon by many plumbers and are not installed in new homes (which are vented entirely with pipes), they do have a proven track record.

Buy AAVs that fit your pipe size, or attach with reducer fittings.

In most cases, each AAV serves only one fixture and is installed near it. Because AAVs can fail, they should be accessible so you can change them if need be. Check with local plumbers and your building department to see if you can use AAVs, and, if so, exactly where they should be installed.

AAV placement

Air admittance valves may be placed on the trap arm inside the room or on the drainpipe. If they are installed on the drainpipe, there should be an access panel so you can change the AAV if needed.

Pipe Materials

Newer homes use only PVC (white plastic) pipes and fittings often referred to as “schedule 40 pipe.” It is not only inexpensive but also strong and nearly eternal. In an older home you may find black plastic pipe, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, called ABS; if so, consult with your building department about tying into it with PVC.

You may find galvanized pipe for smaller stacks and drains, and castiron pipe for larger stacks and drains. Transition fittings are available for changing from older pipe materials to PVC. As can be seen in many of the photos in this chapter, cast-iron pipe, though strong and solid, can often corrode in time.

When transitioning from galvanized to PVC drainpipe, you could use flexible fittings like the one shown in photo 4b. Here, threaded transition fittings are used.

DWV Options


In this plan, a single vent pipe serves the toilet, sink, and shower drain. A 3-in. horizontal drainpipe runs through the middle from the toilet, and the sink and shower drains tie into it. The shower has an under-floor P trap; the sink has a P trap inside the room, and the toilet needs no trap.


Here, vent pipes travel up through the wall and over through basement ceiling joists. The drainpipes for the shower, sink, and toilet all tie in and enter the main drain at the same point.

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